The role of capital

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  • In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Explain the strategic role of capital-investment analysis, describe how accountants can add value to the capital- budgeting process, provide a general model for determining relevant cash flows associated with capital-expenditure projects, apply discounted cash flow (DCF) decision models for capital-budgeting purposes,…

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  • Joseph Schumpeter argued in 1911 that banks play a pivotal role in economic development because they choose which firms get to use society’ s savings. According to this view, the banking sector alters the path of economic progress by affecting the allocation of savings and not necessarily by altering the saving rate. Thus, the Schumpeterian view of finance and development highlights the impact of banks on productivity growth and technological change.

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  • This book began life in many scattered forms, including some of my earlier writings. But the central argument was forced into a unified form during a course of ten public lectures that I gave in the autumn of 1998 at the American University in Cairo. There I tried to explore some of the implications of the emergence of a single global economy, of globalisation or, in its most extreme form, the fusion of national economies.

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  • Based on the mandate we received from the Quality Assurance Group, we set out to determine how the social funds portfolio, comprising 40 projects under implementation as of June 1996, was faring: How well was this portfolio performing? Was sustainability of social funds’ sub- project benefits an issue? A quick word on the methodology of the review. This was a desk review.

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  • Beginning with Titman and Wessels (1988), then Rajan and Zingales (1995) and more recently Frank and Goyal (2004), the empirical corporate finance literature has converged to a limited set of variables that are reliably related to the leverage of non-financial firms. Leverage is positively correlated with size and collateral, and is negatively correlated with profits, market-to-book ratio and dividends.

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  • A number of OECD countries experienced an environment of low interest rates and a rapid increase in housing market activity during the last decade. Previous work suggests three potential explanations for these events: expansionary monetary policy, capital inflows due to a global savings glut and excessive financial innovation combined with inappropriately lax financial regulation. In this study we examine the effects of these three factors on the housing market.

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  • In this chapter, you will learn: Explain the effects of financial leverage, distinguish between business risk and financial risk, understand the ‘capital structure irrelevance’ theory of Modigliani and Miller (MM), explain the roles of taxes and other factors that may influence capital structure decisions,…

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  • The role of inancial executives in any business has expanded signiicantly in recent years as companies become more accountable to their stakeholders and regulators. Combine this increase in accountability with the increasing sophistication of technology, risk management, inancial analysis, and inancial records processing, and we see that the responsibilities of inancial executives in any organization have expanded signiicantly. our goal with The Complete CFO Handbook is to provide inancial executives with the background and tools for managing a company’s inancial functions.

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  • The role of interest rate in the determination of investment and, hence economic growth, has been a matter of controversy over a long period of time. Yet, what constitutes an appropriate interest rate policy still remains to be a puzzling question. Until the early 1970s, the main line of argument was that because the interest rate represents the cost of capital, low interest rates will encourage the acquisition of physical capital (investment) and promotes economic growth. Thus, during that era, the policy of low real interest rate was adopted by ...

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  • This volume includes eleven papers that were prepared as part of a research project on International Aspects of Taxation by the National Bureau of Economic Research. The papers examine the role of taxation in cross-border flows of capital and goods, the real and financial decisions of multinational corporations, and the implications of growing economic interdependence for a country’s choice of a tax system. These papers were presented at a conference...

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  • The third component of the model was demonstrable results. Capitalizing on PSI’ results-based system, Roberts felt that advertising the concrete results of PSI’ interventions would increase the effectiveness of the marketing effort and len legitimacy to the cause. Results had the power to convince the target audience an stimulate fundraising, which would in turn allow PSI to do even more. In addition to promoting PSI’s work in general, publicizing the results of YouthAIDS specifically would also be important. This could directly dovetail into cause-relate marketing efforts.

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  • The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) works exclusively in Latin America. It has just concluded a study and published a book called So- cial Investment Funds in Latin America: Past Performance and Future Role. It occurred about two years ago that social funds have become overwhelm- ingly popular all over the world. They started out as a way of respond- ing to adjustment and have developed in different ways, doing various things. The IDB decided to look at them to determine what is working and what is not working.

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  • Regarding banks’ capital structures, the standard view is that capital regulation constitutes an additional, overriding departure from the Modigliani-Miller irrelevance proposition (see for example Berger et al., 1995, Miller, 1995, or Santos, 2001). Commercial banks have deposits that are insured to protect depositors and to ensure financial stability. In order to mitigate the moral-hazard of this insurance, commercial banks must be required to hold a minimum amount of capital.

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  • Foreword Nitin Nohria Introduction: The State of Integrated Reporting Today Robert G. Eccles Part I: The Role of the Corporation in Society Accounting and Accountability:Integrated Reporting and the Purpose of the Firm Robert Kinloch Massie A CEO’s Letter to Her Board of Directors John Fullerton and Susan Arterian Chang Drivers of Corporate Sustainability and Implications for Capital Markets: An International Perspective Ioannis

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  • The takeover of toxic assets by the government at zero cost and the corresponding write- down of assets will create transparency, avoid the high expense of pricing distressed assets, and will insure that shareholders are the first ones to bear the cost of failure. 27 The risk of moral hazard will also be effectively limited. A zero-cost acquisition is also justified based on the fact that the active management of the troubled assets is impaired by their complex structure. This approach will also keep the bad bank’s initial capital requirements at a minimum....

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  • Fading support by the financial system for firms, and especially new entrants, is a major concern in the current context, underscoring the primary importance of fixing the financial system. Growing aversion to risk combined with other factors (such as difficulties for investors to exit) is already drying up many sources of seed and venture capital. The total amount of venture capital investment in the United States started declining at the beginning of 2008, and the fall accelerated at the end of 2008 and beginning of 2009 (Figure 2).

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  • Historically speaking, the earliest asset pricing models made rel- atively simple predictions about what it means for a benchmark to be OE to a managed portfolio. The Capital Asset Pricing Model of Sharpe (CAPM, 1964) implies that all investors should hold a broadly diversified “market portfolio,” combined with safe assets or “cash,” according to the investor’s tastes for risk. It follows that an OE portfolio is a broadly diversified portfolio, combined with safe assets or cash, mixed to have the same market risk exposure, or “beta” coefficient as the fund.

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  • Current investment management practice typically assumes that the OE portfolio is defined by the fund manager’s investment “style.” Roughly, style refers to a subset of the investment universe in which a manager is constrained to operate, such as small capitalization stocks versus large stocks, or “value” versus “growth” firms. The style con- straint may be a self-declared specialization, or it may be imposed on the manager by the firm.

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  • Private investors can be valuable and innovative partners in maintaining and modernizing critical infrastructure. Our current system of financing, however, has often failed in its attempts to forge viable partnerships with private investors. While the traditional American method of attracting private capital by offer- ing tax-exempt municipal bonds has been successful in many instances and will remain a valuable tool for infrastructure investment, it often leaves many large potential investors sitting on the sidelines.

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  • The broader objective of the FSA’s regulatory approach is to balance the competing interests of shareholder wealth maximization and the interests of other stakeholders. 14 The FSA’s balancing exercise relies less on the strict application of statutory codes and regulatory standards, and more on the design of flexible, internal compliance programmes that fit the particular risk-level and nature of the bank’s business.

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