Research on the discovery of terms from corpora has focused on word sequences whose recurrent occurrence in a corpus is indicative of their terminological status, and has not addressed the issue of discovering terms when data is sparse. This becomes apparent in the case of noun compounding, which is extremely productive: more than half of the candidate compounds extracted from a corpus are attested only once. We show how evidence about established (i.e.
In this p;,perI [ discuss the formal relationship between the process of focussing and interpret;ition of pronominal anaphora. The discussion of focussing extends the work of Grosz . Foct,ssing is defined algorithmical]y as a process which chooses a focus of attention in a discourse and moves it around as the speaker's focus ch'mges. The paper shows how to use the focussing algorithm by ;m extended example given below. DI-I Alfred a,ld Zohar liked to play baseball. 2 They played it everyday after school before dinner. 3 After their game, the two usually went for ice cream cones. ...
Computational neurolinguistics (CN) is an approach to computational l i n g u i s t i c s which includes neurally-motivated constraints in the design of models of natural language processing. Furthermore, the knowledge representations included in such models must be supported with documented behaviorial e v ~ c e , normal and pathological. This paper w i l l discuss the contribution of CN models to ~the understanding of l i n g u i s t i c "competence" within recent research efforts to adapt HOPE (Gigley 1981; 1982a; 1982b; 1982c; 1983a), an implemented CN...
In this paper we argue that lexicalselection plays a more important role in the generation process than has commonly been assumed. To stress the importance of lexicalsemantic input to generation, we explore the distinction and treatment of generating open and closed cla~s lexical items, and suggest an additional classification of the latter into discourse-oriented and proposition-oriented items. Finally, we discuss how lexical selection is influenced by thematic ([oc~) information in the input. ...
In this paper we examine the pragmatic knowledge an utterance-planning system must have in order to produce certain kinds of definite and indefinite noun phrases. An utterance.planning system, like other planning systems, plans actions to satisfy an agent's goals, but allows some of the actions to consist of the utterance of sentences. This approach to language generation emphasizes the view of language as action, and hence assigns a critical role to pragmatics.
This work is the first systematic investigation of initiative in human-human tutorial dialogue. We studied initiative management in two dialogue strategies: didactic tutoring and Socratic tutoring. We hypothesized that didactic tutoring would be mostly tutor-initiative while Socratic tutoring would be mixedinitiative, and that more student initiative would lead to more learning (i.e., task success for the tutor).
We argue that the machine translation community is overly reliant on the Bleu machine translation evaluation metric. We show that an improved Bleu score is neither necessary nor sufﬁcient for achieving an actual improvement in translation quality, and give two signiﬁcant counterexamples to Bleu’s correlation with human judgments of quality. This offers new potential for research which was previously deemed unpromising by an inability to improve upon Bleu scores.
The model of learning strategies of O’Malley et al. (cited in O’Malley & Chamot,
1990) seems useful to describe the strategy instruction in the present research. Since the
teaching of the concepts of conversational implicature and adjacency pairs proposed in my
paper can be the application of unwritten “rules” used commonly in society, the strategy
instruction applying these rules may represent deducing or deductive strategy (applying rules
to the understanding of language) in the sub-category of cognitive strategies presented in this
model (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990).
This paper present an overview of some emerging trends in the application of NLP in the domain of the so-called Digital Humanities and discusses the role and nature of metadata, the annotation layer that is so characteristic of documents that play a role in the scholarly practises of the humanities. It is explained how metadata are the key to the added value of techniques such as text and link mining, and an outline is given of what measures could be taken to increase the chances for a bright future for the old ties between NLP and the humanities. There...
The aim of this paper is to show how large-scale (computational) grammars of natural language benefit from an organization of semantics which is based on Minimal Recursion Semantics (MRS; Copestake et al. (1999)). This we are doing by providing an account of valence alternations in German based on MRS, showing how such an account makes a computational grammar more efficient and less complicated for the grammar writer.
This paper gives an account of the role tense plays in the listener's reconstruction of the events and situations a speaker has chosen to describe. Several new ideas are presented: (a) that tense is better viewed by analogy with definite NPs than with pronouns; (b) that a narrative has a temporal focus that grounds the context-dependency of tense; and (c) that focus management heuristics can be used to track the movement of temporal focus. 1
We use a unique data set to examine the return to English knowledge. Our primary focus is on Russian immigrants to Israel, but we study native Israelis as well. Understanding the role of English in this setting is important for at least three reasons.
At the beginning of work helping people hone communication skills, I was met with a lot of skepticism. People do not appreciate the initiative to escape from the boredom. But then I receive confidential calls for help from someone who has a good reputation.Communication is an active process of information exchange between the speaker and the listener to achieve a certain purpose. Typically, communication through three states: 1. Exchange information, contact psychology 2. Mutual understanding, 3. Impact and influence each other....
What are human languages, such that they can be acquired and used as they
are? This class surveys some of the most important and recent approaches to this question,
breaking the problem up along traditional lines. In spoken languages, what are the basic
speech sounds? How are these sounds articulated and combined? What are the basic units of
meaning? How are the basic units of meaning combined into complex phrases? How are these
complexes interpreted? These questions are surprisingly hard! This introductory survey can
only brieﬂy touch on each one....
There is an obvious interest in this analysis for feminists, a beauty in its exact
rendering of the frustration experienced under the phallocentric order. It gets us
nearer to the roots of our oppression, it brings an articulation of the problem closer,
it faces us with the ultimate challenge: how to fight the unconscious structured like a
language (formed critically at the moment of arrival of language) while still caught
within the language of the patriarchy. There is no way in which we can produce an
alternative out of the blue, but we can begin to make a break...
Recent disasters in the United States, especially Hurricane Katrina, have proven the inadequacy of planning for the protection and safety of our vulnerable populations. The vulnerable, or special, populations can be categorized in many ways, including those with physical disabilities, who have cognitive impairment or mental illness, who are incarcerated, who speak English as a second language or not at all, and who are elderly.
We met first in September and were required to report by the end of the year.
The FRC’s announcement invited comments on the issues raised in our terms of
reference. In addition, we wrote to representative organisations and to leading
audit firms inviting their comments and assistance. A list of those who offered
comments is given in Appendix V. We have looked at experience in other
countries and noted current developments in the United States, the European
Union and elsewhere – see Appendix III.
The information required during implementation is
determined primarily by the scope of the project –
namely the purpose, results, activities, resource
requirements and budget – and by the management
arrangements (roles and responsibilities).
At the purpose and result levels, the key indicators and
sources of verification contained in the Logframe
matrix provide the focus for information collection and
This book marks a major step forward in cognitive science, an effective way of
thinking about minds and brains that isn’t just another computer metaphor.
Many of us have been looking for such a step, but where would it come from?
One promising possibility was dynamical systems theory, which indeed is
basic to Michael Spivey’s argument here. Until now, however, dynamical
systems have had little to say about genuinely cognitive achievements such as
language, categorization, or thought.
Following this tradition, many researchers recognize their usefulness in the description of language - - even if they do not agree on their significance . However, a weak or strong commitment to this notion does not elude the fact that it proves to be very difficult to settle on a finite set of labels along with their formal definitions. The dilemma resulting from this challenge is well known: to require a univocal identification by each role results in an increase in their number while to abstract their semantic content gives rise to an inconsistent set. ...