The second law of thermodynamics

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  • The first law of thermodynamics gives the quantiative relations between the internal energy of a system and the quantities of heat and work that the system exchange with surroundings. It express the conservation of energy. The first law of thermodynamics is true, but not enough ! Why ? Many thermodynamic processes which don’t violate the 1st law, but don’t happen in nature !

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Fundamentals of thermodynamics" has contents: Some introductory comments, some concepts and definitions, properties of a pure substance, work and heat, the first law of thermodynamics, first law analysis for a control volume, the second law of thermodynamics, entropy,... and other contents.

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  • Chapter 6 - The second law of thermodynamics. In this chapter, the thermal energy reservoirs, reversible and irreversible processes, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are introduced first. Various statements of the second law are followed by a discussion of perpetualmotion machines and the thermodynamic temperature scale. The Carnot cycle is introduced next, and the Carnot principles are discussed. Finally, the idealized Carnot heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are examined.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Thermodynamics for engineers" has contents: Concepts, definitions, and basic principles; properties of pure substances; the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics; entropy; reversible work, irreversibility and availability.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Thermodynamics an engineering" has contents: Introduction and basic concepts; energy, energy transfer and general energy analysis; properties of pure subtances; energy analysis of closed systems; mass and energy analysis of control volumes; the second law of thermodynamics; entropy.

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  • Chapter 6 - The second law of thermodynamics. Introduce the second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that energy has quality as well as quantity; identify valid processes as those that satisfy both the first and second laws of thermodynamics; introduce the concepts of thermal energy reservoirs, reversible and irreversible processes, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps;...

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Thermodynamics" has contents: Introduction and basic concepts; energy, energy transfer, and general energy analysis; properties of pure substances; energy analysis of closed systems; mass and energy analysis of control volumes; the second law of thermodynamics;... and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Chemistry for engineering students" has contents: Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry.

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  • Chapter 8 - Exergy: A measure of work potential. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Examine the performance of engineering devices in light of the second law of thermodynamics; define exergy (also called availability), which is the maximum useful work that could be obtained from the system at a given state in a specified environment; define reversible work, which is the maximum useful work that can be obtained as a system undergoes a process between two specified states;...

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  • Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics presents comprehensive coverage of the subject of thermodynamics from a chemical engineering viewpoint. This book provides a thorough exposition of the principles of thermodynamics and details their application to chemical processes.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Physical chemistry" has contents: Gases and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics, the second and third laws of thermodynamics, free energy and chemical potential, introduction to chemical equilibrium, equilibria in single component systems,...and other contents.

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  • Progress of thermodynamics has been stimulated by the fi ndings of a variety of fi elds of science and technology. In the nineteenth century, studies on engineering problems, effi ciency of thermal machines, lead to the discovery of the second law of thermodynamics. Following development of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics allowed us to understand thermodynamics on the basis of the properties of constituent molecules.

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  • Ebook "Thermodynamics Demystifi ed" you referred to the content: Basic principles, properties of pure substances, work and heat, the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics. Invite you to consult.

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  • Spontaneous processes, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics, the molecular interpretation of entropy, gibbs free energy, free energy and the equilibrium constant,... is the main content of the lecture "Chapter 19: Chemical Thermodynamics". Invite you to consult the detailed content lectures to capture details.

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  • Chapter 7 (part 1) - Entropy: A measure of disorder. The objectives of Chapter 7 are to: Apply the second law of thermodynamics to processes; define a new property called entropy to quantify the second-law effects; establish the increase of entropy principle; Calculate the entropy changes that take place during processes for pure substances, incompressible substances, and ideal gases.

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  • Chapter 8 - Exergy: A measure of work potential. In this chapter, we examine the performance of engineering devices in light of the second law of thermodynamics. We start our discussions with the introduction of exergy (also called availability), which is the maximum useful work that could be obtained from the system at a given state in a specified environment, and we continue with the reversible work, which is the maximum useful work that can be obtained as a system undergoes a process between two specified states.

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  • Chapter 16 - Chemical and phase equilibrium. The objectives of Chapter 16 are to: Develop the equilibrium criterion for reacting systems based on the second law of thermodynamics; develop a general criterion for chemical equilibrium applicable to any reacting system based on minimizing the Gibbs function for the system; define and evaluate the chemical equilibrium constant;...

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  • Chapter 16 - Chemical and phase equilibrium. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Develop the equilibrium criterion for reacting systems based on the second law of thermodynamics, more specifically, the increase of entropy principle; develop a general criterion for chemical equilibrium applicable to any reacting system based on minimizing the Gibbs function for the system; define and evaluate the chemical equilibrium constant;...

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  • 3 Resource Acquisition ALL ORGANISMS ARE EXAMPLES OF NEGATIVE ENTROPY, IN CONTRAST TO the tendency for energy to be dissipated, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Organisms acquire energy to collect resources and synthesize the organic molecules that are the basis for life processes, growth, and reproduction.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Physical chemistry for the life sciences" has contents: The first law, the second law, phase equilibria, chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics of ion and electron transport, the rates of reactions, accounting for the rate laws, complex biochemical processes.

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