VALENTIN TURCHIN presents in The Phenomenon of Science an evolutionary
scheme of the universe—one that begins on the level of individual atoms and
molecules, continues through the origin of life and the development of plants and
animals, reaches the level of man and self-consciousness, and develops further in the
intellectual creations of man, particularly in scientific knowledge. He does not see this
development as a purposeful or preordained one, since he accepts entirely the
Darwinian law of trial and error.
So far you have learnt how to record transactions in the accounting books by means of debit and
credit entries. At the end of each accounting period the figures in each account are examined in
order to summarise the situation they present. This will often, but not always, be a year if you
are calculating profit. It will be at least once a month if you want to see what is happening with
respect to particular accounts. Probably the most obvious reason for this is to find out how
much our customers owe us for goods we have sold to them. In most businesses this...
Self-awareness allows individuals to have a sense of who they are in relation to society
and culture. By reflexively adjusting one’s perception of self in reaction to society,
people construct their individual identity. Approaches to identity abound, and they refer
to many different ideas about the self, much of which is grounded in contemporary
Western cultural values. Frequently, identity refers to at least two different aspects of the
individual – that which is an internalized notion of the self, and that which is the
projected version of one’s internalized self.