Corporate Social Responsibility (or CSR as we will call it throughout this book) is a concept
which has become dominant in business reporting. Every corporation has a policy concerning
CSR and produces a report annually detailing its activity. And of course each of us claims to be
able to recognise corporate activity which is socially responsible and activity which is not
The concept of governance is not a new one but nowadays we hear words as corporate governance, organizational governance or good governance frequently. Actually corporate governance or, as defined in ISO FDIS 26000, organizational governance is the system by which an organization makes and implements decisions in pursuit of its objectives. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented).
The social institutions, manners, and customs of an ancient people must always be of deep interest for all
those to whom nothing is indifferent that is human. But even for modern thinkers, engrossed in the practical
problems of our advanced civilization, the records of antiquity have a direct value. We are better able to deal
with the complicated questions of the day if we are acquainted with the simpler issues of the past. We may not
set them aside as too remote to have any influence upon us. Not long ago men looked to Greece and Rome for
political models. We can hardly estimate the...
Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective
The New Fiscal Sociology: Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective demon-
strates that the study of taxation can illuminate fundamental dynamics of modern
societies. The fourteen chapters in this collection offer a state-of-the-art survey of the
new ﬁscal sociology that is emerging at the intersection of sociology, history, political
science, and law.
The contributors include some of the foremost comparative historical scholars in
these disciplines and others.
If we weight market capitalizations and net earnings for the three S&P categories and
then take the ratio, we have a price-earnings ratio of 19.3 Aggregate earnings and this priceearnings
ratio imply an estimate for the aggregate market capitalization of 1.67 times GNP,
which is close to that for industrials only.
We should note that an estimate of 19 for the price-earnings ratio is significantly higher
than that reported by Fisher, who cites the Standard Statistics Company as the source for
In itself, the international workshop was also the first step in integrating the international and
regional networks of social funds by bringing together families of programs that started with
different sector priorities and approaches, such as the AGETIPs in Western Africa and the social
investment funds in Latin America, and by stimulating the creation of social funds networks in
Eastern Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and Northern Africa and the Middle East.
Aprofession is characterized by skill based on a unique body of knowledge, a
code of ethics, and a social contract with society or government that grants it a
certain degree of autonomy in exchange for self-regulation. The responsibilities
of self-regulation in the medical profession are complex and involve many
levels of oversight aimed at guaranteeing the continuing competence of
practicing physicians. Today, professional associations in the United States play
a significant role in upholding the ethical, educational, scientific, and practice
standards of the medical profession.
Africa is still undergoing a process of economic stabilization, and many countries are facing
specific issues of post-conflict reconstruction that call for emergency social funds interven-
tions. The region already has the largest concentration of social funds, with the AGETIP agen-
cies of West Africa regrouped within AFRICATIP. The social funds of Eastern and Southern
Africa will develop their own network to be called Social Funds NET.
As I noted at the outset, when we last gathered here, the deep economic
contraction had ended, and we were seeing broad stabilization in global economic
activity and the beginnings of a recovery. Concerted government efforts to restore
confidence in the financial system, including the aggressive provision of liquidity by
central banks, were essential in achieving that outcome. Monetary policies in many
countries had been eased aggressively.
Businesses can invest in modernizing equipment, but the impact of further declines in interest rates
is likely to be limited. There is a large body of research that finds that investment is not very
responsive to interest rates.
Furthermore, the rate of growth of equipment and software investment
is already quite rapid, with growth averaging 19.9 percent from third quarter of 2009 to the second
quarter of 2010. It does not seem likely that lower interest rates will increase this rate substantially,
especially in a context where demand is contracting due to budget cuts.
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At the same time, by comparing over time, case studies document that well-executed investments can
provide benefits. These accrue through four main channels, namely (i) social infrastructure, often
supported by community development funds using land compensation; (ii) employment and jobs; (iii)
access to markets and technology for local producers; and (iv) local or national tax revenue. In all cases,
economic viability of investment is a necessary condition for positive social outcomes to materialize,
including food security.
The second future path for social funds is as special-purpose vehicles,
providing selective seed capital to foster innovations in community de-
velopment, to experiment with new technologies, and to act as the
government’s agent in remote areas and for very small-scale activities.
Even though many of the social funds might already characterize them-
selves as special-purpose vehicles, they have gotten much broader.
All members of the social health insurance scheme are automatically covered by social long-
term care insurance. The responsible long-term care insurance funds (Pflegekassen) are
affiliated to the corresponding health insurance funds (Krankenkassen). Employees who are
not covered by social LTC insurance are permitted to contract with a private long-term care
insurance institution as long as they are members of a private health insurance scheme.
Significant development always builds from existing
assets and points of strength. Accordingly, not all
economically distressed places are positioned to utilize
arts and cultural activities as a major development
strategy at either the regional or neighborhood level.
Additionally, no economic or community development
strategy should be viewed as a quick-fix to complex
social and economic problems.
The Mural Arts Program has created
more than 2,700 murals throughout the city and
is one of Philadelphia’s largest employers of artists,
employing more than 300 per year. Created two
decades ago as a response to graffiti and youth crime,
the program provides opportunities for more than
3,000 young people each year.
The way in which murals become focal points for
creating social capital is often underappreciated. To
get a mural commissioned, a neighborhood has to
organize and apply, contribute time and energy, and
agree on the themes and images to be represented.
Historically, charitable trusts and foundations have
sought to prevent acute social problems in the UK,
using grants to demonstrate and fund interventions
that improve social outcomes and reduce the number
of individuals requiring crisis interventions. Trust and
foundation resources are limited however – only
£4.4bn9 per year compared to government budgets
of £603bn10 – enabling them to demonstrate effective
interventions, but not to make them available to
everyone who would benefi t.
Critical features of a sound investment
climate include a sensible governance system that allows firms and farms to pursue
productive activity without harassment, contracts and property rights to be respected and
corruption to be reduced. Equally important is an infrastructure that allows private
entrepreneurs and their employees to operate effectively. Competition and, where
necessary, regulation are essential to channel private initiative in socially useful
In this volume the Study Group on
a European Civil Code (the ‘Study Group’) and the Research Group
on Existing EC Private Law (the ‘Acquis Group’) present the revised
and final academic Draft of a Common Frame of Reference (DCFR).
It contains Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European
General Intr. 1
Private Law in an outline edition. Among other goals, its completion
fulfils an obligation to the European Commission undertaken in
2005. The Commission’s Research Directorate-General funded part
of the work.
An inventory of all the chemicals including pharmaceuticals was made and a special task
force was formed to advise the government on proper disposal system. Many donors were
approached to provide financial assistance for the disposal but the response was until 1995
when the Netherlands government offered 1.5 million USD for the whole exercise which
involved repacking, recollection in special centers and finally to remove the chemicals
including pharmaceuticals to be incinerated in the UK. Rechem Company was contracted
to do the job and 400 tons were removed in 1995.