Xem 1-20 trên 28 kết quả The social contract
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (or CSR as we will call it throughout this book) is a concept which has become dominant in business reporting. Every corporation has a policy concerning CSR and produces a report annually detailing its activity. And of course each of us claims to be able to recognise corporate activity which is socially responsible and activity which is not socially responsible.

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  • The concept of governance is not a new one but nowadays we hear words as corporate governance, organizational governance or good governance frequently. Actually corporate governance or, as defined in ISO FDIS 26000, organizational governance is the system by which an organization makes and implements decisions in pursuit of its objectives. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented).

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  • The social institutions, manners, and customs of an ancient people must always be of deep interest for all those to whom nothing is indifferent that is human. But even for modern thinkers, engrossed in the practical problems of our advanced civilization, the records of antiquity have a direct value. We are better able to deal with the complicated questions of the day if we are acquainted with the simpler issues of the past. We may not set them aside as too remote to have any influence upon us. Not long ago men looked to Greece and Rome for political models. We can hardly estimate the...

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  • Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective The New Fiscal Sociology: Taxation in Comparative and Historical Perspective demon- strates that the study of taxation can illuminate fundamental dynamics of modern societies. The fourteen chapters in this collection offer a state-of-the-art survey of the new fiscal sociology that is emerging at the intersection of sociology, history, political science, and law. The contributors include some of the foremost comparative historical scholars in these disciplines and others.

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  • If we weight market capitalizations and net earnings for the three S&P categories and then take the ratio, we have a price-earnings ratio of 19.3 Aggregate earnings and this priceearnings ratio imply an estimate for the aggregate market capitalization of 1.67 times GNP, which is close to that for industrials only. We should note that an estimate of 19 for the price-earnings ratio is significantly higher than that reported by Fisher, who cites the Standard Statistics Company as the source for his data.

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  • In itself, the international workshop was also the first step in integrating the international and regional networks of social funds by bringing together families of programs that started with different sector priorities and approaches, such as the AGETIPs in Western Africa and the social investment funds in Latin America, and by stimulating the creation of social funds networks in Eastern Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and Northern Africa and the Middle East.

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  • Aprofession is characterized by skill based on a unique body of knowledge, a code of ethics, and a social contract with society or government that grants it a certain degree of autonomy in exchange for self-regulation. The responsibilities of self-regulation in the medical profession are complex and involve many levels of oversight aimed at guaranteeing the continuing competence of practicing physicians. Today, professional associations in the United States play a significant role in upholding the ethical, educational, scientific, and practice standards of the medical profession.

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  • Africa is still undergoing a process of economic stabilization, and many countries are facing specific issues of post-conflict reconstruction that call for emergency social funds interven- tions. The region already has the largest concentration of social funds, with the AGETIP agen- cies of West Africa regrouped within AFRICATIP. The social funds of Eastern and Southern Africa will develop their own network to be called Social Funds NET.

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  • As I noted at the outset, when we last gathered here, the deep economic contraction had ended, and we were seeing broad stabilization in global economic activity and the beginnings of a recovery. Concerted government efforts to restore confidence in the financial system, including the aggressive provision of liquidity by central banks, were essential in achieving that outcome. Monetary policies in many countries had been eased aggressively.

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  • Businesses can invest in modernizing equipment, but the impact of further declines in interest rates is likely to be limited. There is a large body of research that finds that investment is not very responsive to interest rates. 8 Furthermore, the rate of growth of equipment and software investment is already quite rapid, with growth averaging 19.9 percent from third quarter of 2009 to the second quarter of 2010. It does not seem likely that lower interest rates will increase this rate substantially, especially in a context where demand is contracting due to budget cuts.

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  • Vice President/Publisher Associate Publisher Associate Editor Senior Production Editor Executive Marketing Manager Creative Director Senior Designer Production Management Services Editorial Assistant Senior Media Editor Cover Photo Cover Design Bicentennial Logo Design Don Fowley Judith Joseph Brian Kamins Valerie A. Vargas Amy Scholz Harry Nolan Kevin Murphy Aptara, Corp. Sarah Vernon Allison Morris c Brian Baley/Getty Images, Inc. David Levy Richard J. Pacifico This book was set in 10/12 Cheltenham Light by Aptara, Corp. and printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons, Inc.

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  • At the same time, by comparing over time, case studies document that well-executed investments can provide benefits. These accrue through four main channels, namely (i) social infrastructure, often supported by community development funds using land compensation; (ii) employment and jobs; (iii) access to markets and technology for local producers; and (iv) local or national tax revenue. In all cases, economic viability of investment is a necessary condition for positive social outcomes to materialize, including food security.

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  • The second future path for social funds is as special-purpose vehicles, providing selective seed capital to foster innovations in community de- velopment, to experiment with new technologies, and to act as the government’s agent in remote areas and for very small-scale activities. Even though many of the social funds might already characterize them- selves as special-purpose vehicles, they have gotten much broader.

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  • All members of the social health insurance scheme are automatically covered by social long- term care insurance. The responsible long-term care insurance funds (Pflegekassen) are affiliated to the corresponding health insurance funds (Krankenkassen). Employees who are not covered by social LTC insurance are permitted to contract with a private long-term care insurance institution as long as they are members of a private health insurance scheme.

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  • Significant development always builds from existing assets and points of strength. Accordingly, not all economically distressed places are positioned to utilize arts and cultural activities as a major development strategy at either the regional or neighborhood level. Additionally, no economic or community development strategy should be viewed as a quick-fix to complex social and economic problems.

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  • The Mural Arts Program has created more than 2,700 murals throughout the city and is one of Philadelphia’s largest employers of artists, employing more than 300 per year. Created two decades ago as a response to graffiti and youth crime, the program provides opportunities for more than 3,000 young people each year. The way in which murals become focal points for creating social capital is often underappreciated. To get a mural commissioned, a neighborhood has to organize and apply, contribute time and energy, and agree on the themes and images to be represented.

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  • Historically, charitable trusts and foundations have sought to prevent acute social problems in the UK, using grants to demonstrate and fund interventions that improve social outcomes and reduce the number of individuals requiring crisis interventions. Trust and foundation resources are limited however – only £4.4bn9 per year compared to government budgets of £603bn10 – enabling them to demonstrate effective interventions, but not to make them available to everyone who would benefi t.

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  • Critical features of a sound investment climate include a sensible governance system that allows firms and farms to pursue productive activity without harassment, contracts and property rights to be respected and corruption to be reduced. Equally important is an infrastructure that allows private entrepreneurs and their employees to operate effectively. Competition and, where necessary, regulation are essential to channel private initiative in socially useful directions.

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  • In this volume the Study Group on a European Civil Code (the ‘Study Group’) and the Research Group on Existing EC Private Law (the ‘Acquis Group’) present the revised and final academic Draft of a Common Frame of Reference (DCFR). It contains Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European General Intr. 1 3 Private Law in an outline edition. Among other goals, its completion fulfils an obligation to the European Commission undertaken in 2005. The Commission’s Research Directorate-General funded part of the work.

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  • An inventory of all the chemicals including pharmaceuticals was made and a special task force was formed to advise the government on proper disposal system. Many donors were approached to provide financial assistance for the disposal but the response was until 1995 when the Netherlands government offered 1.5 million USD for the whole exercise which involved repacking, recollection in special centers and finally to remove the chemicals including pharmaceuticals to be incinerated in the UK. Rechem Company was contracted to do the job and 400 tons were removed in 1995.

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