Recent work on the syntax-semantics interface (see e.g. (Dalrymple et al., 1994)) uses a fragment of linear logic as a 'glue language' for assembling meanings compositionally. This paper presents a glue language account of how negative polarity items (e.g. ever, any) get licensed within the scope of negative or downward-entailing contexts (Ladusaw, 1979), e.g. Nobody ever left. This treatment of licensing operates precisely at the syntax-semantics interface, since it is carried out entirely within the interface glue language (linear logic). ...
The Layered Domain Class system (LDC) is an experimental natural language processor being developed at Duke University which reached the prototype stage in M a y of 1983. Its primary goals are (I) to provide English-language retrieval capabilities for structured but unnormaUzed data files created by the user, (2) to allow very complex semantics, in terms of the information directly available from the physical data file; and (3) to enable users to customize the system to operate with new types of data. In this paper we shall discuss (a) the types of modifiers LDC provides for; (b) h o...
What is the relationship between syntax, prosody and phonetics? This paper argues for a declarative constraint-based theory, in which each step in a derivation adds diverse constraints to a pool. Some of these describe well formed objects in the feature structure domain, in terms of both syntactic and prosodic features. Some characterise the relative prominence of constituents as a partial order over some discrete domain (playing the role of metrical grid). Some are simultaneous equations in the reals, whose solutions represent the pitch level of phonetic objects - high and low tones....
This paper addresses the automatic classiﬁcation of semantic relations in noun phrases based on cross-linguistic evidence from a set of ﬁve Romance languages. A set of novel semantic and contextual English– Romance NP features is derived based on empirical observations on the distribution of the syntax and meaning of noun phrases on two corpora of different genre (Europarl and CLUVI). The features were employed in a Support Vector Machines algorithm which achieved an accuracy of 77.9% (Europarl) and 74.
It is claimed that a variety of facts concerning ellipsis, event reference, and interclausal coherence can be explained by two features of the linguistic form in question: (1) whether the form leaves behind an empty constituent in the syntax, and (2) whether the form is anaphoric in the semantics. It is proposed that these features interact with one of two types of discourse inference, namely Common Topic inference and Coherent Situation inference.
A proper treatment of syntax and semantics in machine translation is introduced and discussed from the empirical viewpoint. For EnglishJapanese machine translation, the syntax directed approach is effective where the Heuristic Parsing Model (HPM) and the Syntactic Role System play important roles. For Japanese-English translation, the semantics directed approach is powerful where the Conceptual Dependency Diagram (CDD) and the Augmented Case Marker System (which is a kind of Semantic Role System) play essential roles.
the lexical features of a language. The work is based upon the hypothesis that whenever two words are semantically dissimilar, this difference will manifest itself in the syntax via lexical distribution (in a sense, playing out the notion of distributional analysis [Harris 51]). Most, if not all, features have a semantic basis. For instance, there is a clear semantic difference between most count and mass nouns. But while meaning specifies the core of a word class, it does not specify precisely what can and cannot be a member of a class. For instance, furniture is a mass noun in...
Analysing English Sentences provides a concise and clear introduction to current work in syntactic theory, drawing on the key concepts of Chomsky’s Minimalist Program. Assuming little or no prior knowledge of syntax or Minimalism, Radford outlines the core concepts and leading ideas and how they can be used to describe various aspects of the syntax of English. A diverse range of topics is covered, including syntactic structure, null constituents, head movement, case and agreement, and split projections.
The Unified Modelling Language, or the UML, is a graphical modelling language that
provides us with a syntax for describing the major elements (called artifacts in the
UML) of software systems. In this course, we will explore the main aspects of the
UML, and describe how the UML can be applied to software development projects.
Through to its core, UML leans towards object oriented software development, so in
this course, we will also explore some of the important principles of object
INTRODUCTION FOR STUDENTS
WHAT ARE WRITING TEMPLATES?
Most simply stated, templates are models. More specifically, writing templates are skeletal syntactic frameworks—parts of sentences or paragraphs with blanks to fill in with words of your choice. They are valuable because they help the reader understand better what you are saying. They help you, the writer, with organization, and they help you to develop the kinds of sentence, paragraph, and paper structure that strong writers display.
All rights reserved. No part of this documentation may be transmitted, transcribed, stored in a backup device or translated into another language without Fagor Automation’s consent. Unauthorized copying or distributing of this software is prohibited. The information described in this manual may be changed due to technical modifications. Fagor Automation reserves the right to make any changes to the contents of this manual without prior notice.
When the chronicle of computer languages is written, the following will be said:
B led to C, C evolved into C++, and C++ set the stage for Java. To understand
Java is to understand the reasons that drove its creation, the forces that
shaped it, and the legacy that it inherits. Like the successful computer languages that
came before, Java is a blend of the best elements of its rich heritage combined with the
innovative concepts required by its unique environment.
Get past all the hype about PHP and dig into the real power of this language. This book explores the most useful features of PHP and how they can speed up the web development process, and explains why the most commonly used PHP elements are often misused or misapplied. You'll learn which parts add strength to object-oriented programming, and how to use certain features to integrate your application with databases.
Written by a longtime member of the PHP community, PHP: The Good Parts is ideal for new PHP programmers, as well as web developers switching from other languages....
Assembly is a low-level programming language that’s one step above a computer’s native machine language. Although assembly language is commonly used for writing device drivers, emulators, and video games, many programmers find its somewhat unfriendly syntax intimidating to learn and use.
"Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform" is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET.
This section describes characteristics of the Wisconsin household population subgroups for whom health
statistics are presented in this report. All of the characteristics described here are estimates from the
2008 Family Health Survey weighted data. The Family Health Survey is considered to be representative
of all people who live in Wisconsin households. Survey results can be used to describe household
residents, keeping in mind that survey estimates will differ from results of a complete count, such as a
The purpose of this book is to teach you the syntax and semantics of the C# programming language in as
clear a manner as possible. C# is a wonderful programming language! I love coding in it. I don’t know
how many programming languages I’ve learned over the years, but C# is by far my favorite. I hope that
by using this book, you can gain an appreciation for C#’s beauty and elegance.
Most books teach programming primarily using text.
We propose a novel technique of learning how to transform the source parse trees to improve the translation qualities of syntax-based translation models using synchronous context-free grammars. We transform the source tree phrasal structure into a set of simpler structures, expose such decisions to the decoding process, and ﬁnd the least expensive transformation operation to better model word reordering.