Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.
Nanotechnology involves research and development on materials and species
at length scales between 1 and 100 nm. The term nano is derived from the
Greek word meaning “dwarf.” In dimensional scaling, nano refers to 10–9, i.e.,
one billionth of a unit. Thus, a nanometer is 10–9 m (0.000000001 m), or about
the size of a molecule such as benzene. Nanotechnology therefore, refers to the
techniques and methods for studying, designing, and fabricating things at the
THE TERM CELL IS DERIVED from the Latin cella, meaning storeroom or chamber. It was first used in biology in 1665 by the English botanist Robert Hooke to describe the individual units of the honeycomb-like structure he observed in cork under a compound microscope. The “cells” Hooke observed were actually the empty lumens of dead cells surrounded by cell walls, but the term is an apt one because cells are the basic building blocks that define plant structure.
LIFE ON EARTH ULTIMATELY DEPENDS ON ENERGY derived from the sun. Photosynthesis is the only process of biological importance that can harvest this energy. In addition, a large fraction of the planet’s energy resources results from photosynthetic activity in either recent or ancient times (fossil fuels). This chapter introduces the basic physical principles that underlie photosynthetic energy storage and the current understanding of the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus (Blankenship 2002). The term photosynthesis means literally “synthesis using light.
This section illustrates that MBT systems can
be described as two simple concepts: either to
separate the waste and then treat; or to treat
the waste and then separate. In some
systems only biological treatment is required
to treat all the residual MSW before disposal
to landfill. Whilst a variety of treatment and
mechanical separation options are offered,
these need to be optimised in terms of the
outputs in order to find outlets for the
various materials / fuels derived from the
process (see Markets for the Outputs section). ...
Recently, a novel plaque-associated protein, collagenous Alzheimer amy-loid plaque component (CLAC), was identified in brains from patients with
Alzheimer’s disease. CLAC is derived from a type II transmembrane colla-gen precursor protein, termed CLAC-P (collagen XXV). The biological
function and the contribution of CLAC to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s
disease and plaque formation are unknown.