phonetic changes, for example, includes things that have been said before, and perhaps more definitively; but, aside from the fact that this part contains many valuable and original details, even a superficial reading will show to what extent its omission would detract from an understanding of the principles upon which F. de Saussure erects his system of static linguistics. We are aware of our responsibility to our critics. We are also aware of our responsibility to the author, who probably would not have authorized the publication of these pages.
From one of the most influential economists of the modern era, Keynes and his "General Theory" shaped economic thought and government policies for decades to come. Out of this magnum opus arose the Keynesian school of economics. Keynes argues that the level of employment in a modern economy was determined by three factors: the marginal propensity to consume (income that people chose to spend on goods and services), the marginal efficiency of capital (the rate used to see whether investments are worthy) and the rate of interest.
With globalisation and knowledge-based production, firms may cooperate on a global scale, outsource
parts of their administrative or productive units and negate location altogether. The extremely low transaction
costs of data, information and knowledge seem to invalidate the theory of agglomeration and the spatial clustering
of firms, going back to the classical work by Alfred Weber (1868-1958) and Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), who
emphasized the microeconomic benefits of industrial collocation.
What does 'anticapitalism' really mean for the politics and culture of the twenty-first century? Anticapitalism is an idea which, despite going global, remains rooted in the local, persisting as a loose collection of grassroots movements and actions. Anticapitalism needs to develop a coherent and cohering philosophy, something which cultural theory and the intellectual legacy of the New Left can help to provide, notably through the work of key radical thinkers, such as Ernesto Laclau, Stuart Hall, Antonio Negri, Gilles Deleuze and Judith Butler. Anticapitalism and Culture argues that t...
In this paper we critically evaluate the standard-setting inferences that can be drawn
from value relevance research studies that are motivated by standard setting. Our
evaluation concentrates on the theories of accounting, standard setting and valuation
that underlie those inferences. Unless those underlying theories are descriptive of
accounting, standard setting and valuation, the value-relevance literature’s reported
associations between accounting numbers and common equity valuations have limited
implications or inferences for standard setting; they are mere associations.
This paper argues that developmental patterns in child language be taken seriously in computational models of language acquisition, and proposes a formal theory that meets this criterion. We first present developmental facts that are problematic for statistical learning approaches which assume no prior knowledge of grammar, and for traditional learnability models which assume the learner moves from one UG-defined grammar to another. In contrast, we view language acquisition as a population of grammars associated with "weights", that compete in a Darwinian selectionist process. ...
Starting from the assumption that machine translation (MT) should be based on theoretically s o u n d grounds, we argue that, given the state of the a r t , the only v i a b l e solution for the designer of software tools for MT, is to provide the linguists building the MT system with a generator of highly specialized, problem oriented systems. We propose that such theory sensitive systems be generated automatically by supplying a set of definitions to a kernel software, of which we give an informal description in the paper. We give...
I will argue in this paper that the standard notions of a f f e c t e d n e s s , change-of-state and result state are too coarse-grained, and will revise and enrich substantially their content, increasing their role in a compositional aspect construal procedure. I will claim in particular that a proper theory of event structure requires that enriched result states should be lexically represented, and will base on them a computational treatment of event structure within a feature-structure-based lexicon. ...
What is the relationship between syntax, prosody and phonetics? This paper argues for a declarative constraint-based theory, in which each step in a derivation adds diverse constraints to a pool. Some of these describe well formed objects in the feature structure domain, in terms of both syntactic and prosodic features. Some characterise the relative prominence of constituents as a partial order over some discrete domain (playing the role of metrical grid). Some are simultaneous equations in the reals, whose solutions represent the pitch level of phonetic objects - high and low tones....
Theory argues that R&D intensity and acquisition activity may be either directly or inversely related. However, empirically we know relatively little about which firms are responsible for acquisition activity in high-technology industries.
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Why does Keynes argue that the government should adopt active policies, rather than allowing the price system to prevail? Can the Keynesian Model explain an ice cream war? Why did Keynes reject the classical theory that “supply creates its own demand”?...
This is an introductive study on what Fuzzy Logic is, on the difference between Fuzzy Logic
and the other many-valued calculi and on the possible relationship between Fuzzy Logic
and the complex sciences. Fuzzy Logic is nowadays a very popular logic methodology.
Different kinds of applications in cybernetics, in software programming and its growing use
in medicine seems to make Fuzzy Logic, according to someone, the “new” logic of science
In this study of architecture's role in present-day consumer society, architect Antti Ahlava argues that the attempt to study the ever-more individualistic needs of consumers in architecture is a vain act. With an approach based on the theories of French sociologist Jean Baudrillard, Ahlava argues the calls for satisfaction, indivisualisation, personalisation and creativity are actually the very core of a "magical" manipulation and "mythical" control within the socio-economic system of the culture industry.
10 What Is To Be Undone? The Economics of Competition and Greed
In Capitalism and Freedom (University of Chicago Press, 1964) Nobel Laureate and Dean of conservative economists, Milton Friedman, argued that only capitalism can provide economic freedom, allocate resources efficiently, and motivate people successfully.
"It's the animal in us," we often hear when we've been bad. But why not when we're good? Primates and Philosophers tackles this question by exploring the biological foundations of one of humanity's most valued traits: morality.
In this provocative book, primatologist Frans de Waal argues that modern-day evolutionary biology takes far too dim a view of the natural world, emphasizing our "selfish" genes. Science has thus exacerbated our reciprocal habits of blaming nature when we act badly and labeling the good things we do as "humane.
8 Ecosystem principles have broad explanatory power in ecology
8.1 INTRODUCTION The criticism that ecology as a whole lacks universal laws and predictive theory is frequent, and there are authors who even argue that theoretical ecology concerned for instance with fitness and natural selection is not scientific
This book challenges the conventional wisdom that natural resource wealth promotes autocracy. Oil and other forms of mineral wealth can promote both authoritarianism and democracy, the book argues, but they do so through different mechanisms; an understanding of these different mechanisms can help elucidate when either the authoritarian or democratic effects of resource wealth will be relatively strong.
Standard economic theory argues that international private capital flows will make a major contribution to development to the extent that they will flow from capital-abundant industrialized countries to capital-scarce developing countries, and help to smooth spending throughout the business cycle in capital-recipient countries. In recent years, reality has contradicted both aspects of this standard theory. For the last seven years, developing countries have transferred large amount of resources to developed countries.
Since viewers regularly respond to ﬁlms emotionally as well as cognitively,
it is only natural that a student’s emotional response can occasionally overwhelm
their interpretations of a ﬁlm. As an instructor , I have noticed that those students
who describe being bored by a given ﬁlm often cannot offer much in the way of
interpretation of that ﬁlm during group discussions, and that consequently they
often perform poorly when writing about the ﬁlm.
Agency theory argues that there are costs associated with the separation of
ownership and control in publicly held companies. The agency model proposes that
non-executive directors are an effective means of monitoring executive directors and
that they are able to change the behaviour of the executive directors so that
shareholder interests are pursued (Fama 1980; Fama and Jensen 1983; Hermalin
and Weisbach 2003).