In this Unit, you will discover What molecules make up cells How the cell membrane separates cells from their external environment but allows substances into and out of the cell What special functions cell structures have and how these contribute to keeping an organism alive What processes in cells capture and release the energy needed for survival and how we harness these processes
It has been said that we are made of the stuff of
stars. What do you think this means? The pine wood cells pictured on the right and all other organisms on Earth are made mostly of only...
from the Latin cella, meaning storeroom or chamber. It was first used in biology in 1665 by the English botanist Robert Hooke to describe the individual units of the honeycomb-like structure he observed in cork under a compound microscope. The “cells” Hooke observed were actually the empty lumens of dead cells surrounded by cell walls, but the term is an apt one because cells are the basic building blocks that define plant structure. This book will emphasize the physi
France holds a rather unusual position in the field of evolutionary biology.
Whereas French naturalists from Buffon, Cuvier and Lamarck onwards made
great discoveries in centuries past, French biologists missed the turning when
it came to genetics. Until the 1970s, most French biologists were convinced
that genetics was not as interesting as developmental science (some "rare
species", for example R. Chandebois, still hold this view). For them, the
general principles of heredity resided in the cytoplasm rather than in the
In this course on game theory, we will be studying a range of mathematical
models of con°ict and cooperation between two or more agents. The course
will attempt an overview of a broad range of models that are studied in
game theory, and that have found application in, for example, economics
and evolutionary biology. In this Introduction, we outline the content of
this course, often giving examples.
To the student of the origins of Christianity there is naturally no period of Western history of greater interest
and importance than the first century of our era; and yet how little comparatively is known about it of a really
definite and reliable nature.
Work on Deisboeck and Kresh's Complex Systems Science in BioMedicine
started years ago. In fact, thoughts and ideas leading up to this textbook date
back to our first conversation, sometime in the fall of 1996. We quickly found
common ground, and talked about emergence and self-organization and their
relevance for medicine. We were both fascinated by the idea of complexity and
marveled about its tremendous possibilities for cancer research, which was then
and still is Tom's main scientific interest. Much has happened in science and
technology since we first discussed our vision.
This book is an introduction to game theory from a mathematical perspective.
It is intended to be a first course for undergraduate students of mathematics,
but I also hope that it will contain something of interest to advanced students
or researchers in biology and economics who often encounter the basics of game
theory informally via relevant applications. In view of the intended audience,
the examples used in this book are generally abstract problems so that the
reader is not forced to learn a great deal of a subject – either biology or economics
– that may be unfamiliar.
The position taken by the writer of this volume should be clearly understood. It is not the view known as
antivivisection, so far as this means the condemnation without exception of all phases of biological
investigation. There are methods of research which involve no animal suffering, and which are of scientific
utility. Within certain careful limitations, these would seem justifiable.
The second shift is methodological in nature. Until recently only
two strategies were available for studying the biological mecha-
nisms underlying artistic appreciation and creation: ﬁrst, making
theoretical conjectures based on general understanding of brain
structure and function; and second, single case-studies of brain
injuries affecting art-related activities. The former produced theo-
ries that often went untested (and were sometimes untestable),
while the latter generated accounts that were often anecdotal,
incomplete and difﬁcult to interpret.
I went on to argue that this long-standing sociological view of what really
happens in organizations has important commonalities with recent economic models by
the likes of Bengt Holmstrom, David Kreps, Paul Milgrom, John Roberts, and Jean
Tirole. For example, I described how one page from Crozier’s (1964) case study
anticipated key elements of Milgrom and Roberts’s (1988) model of how the prospect of
influence activities shapes second-best organizational design.
In 1977, Dr. George Engel’s seminal article on the biopsychosocial
model of disease, “The Need for a New Medical Model:
A Challenge for Biomedicine,” was published in Science. Over
20 years later, the article is still required reading in many
training programs in psychiatry, nursing, psychology, and
social work, because the biopsychosocial model advances a
comprehensive understanding of disease and treatment. The
model is derived from general systems theory, which proposes
that each system affects and is affected by the other systems....