Xem 1-20 trên 28 kết quả Their syntax
  • This paper presents an incremental probabilistic learner that models the acquistion of syntax and semantics from a corpus of child-directed utterances paired with possible representations of their meanings. These meaning representations approximate the contextual input available to the child; they do not specify the meanings of individual words or syntactic derivations. The learner then has to infer the meanings and syntactic properties of the words in the input along with a parsing model.

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  • A fundamental problem in text generation is word ordering. Word ordering is a computationally difficult problem, which can be constrained to some extent for particular applications, for example by using synchronous grammars for statistical machine translation. There have been some recent attempts at the unconstrained problem of generating a sentence from a multi-set of input words (Wan et al., 2009; Zhang and Clark, 2011). By using CCG and learning guided search, Zhang and Clark reported the highest scores on this task.

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  • In this paper we present a parser which al lows to make explicit the interconnections between syntax and semantics, to analyze the sentences in a quasi-deterministic fashion and, in many cases, to identify the roles of the various constituents even if the sentance is ill-formed.

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  • We study the global topology of the syntactic and semantic distributional similarity networks for English through the technique of spectral analysis. We observe that while the syntactic network has a hierarchical structure with strong communities and their mixtures, the semantic network has several tightly knit communities along with a large core without any such welldefined community structure. intriguing question, whereby we construct the syntactic and semantic distributional similarity network (DSN) and analyze their spectrum to understand their global topology. ...

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  • Syntactic constraints in Koskenniemi's Finite-State Intersection Grammar (FSIG) are logically less complex than their formalism (Koskenniemi et al., 1992) would suggest: It turns out that although the constraints in Voutilainen's (1994) FSIG description of English make use of several extensions to regular expressions, the description as a whole reduces to a finite combination of union, complement and concatenation. This is an essential improvement to the descriptive complexity of ENGFSIG.

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  • Nokia and Nokia Connecting People are registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation. Java and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks or trade names of their respective owners.

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  • XML 1.0 and Namespaces in XML provide a tag-based syntax for structuring data and applying markups to documents. Documents that conform to XML 1.0 and Namespaces in XML specifications may be made up of a variety of syntactic constructs such as elements, namespace declarations, attributes, processing instructions, comments, and text. This chapter provides a description of each of the structural elements in XML along with their syntax.

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  • With the introduction of multicore devices such as the iPad 2 and the quad-core Mac- Book Pro, writing multithreaded apps that take advantage of multiple cores on a device has become one of the biggest headaches for developers. Take, for instance, the introduction of iPad 2. On the launch day, only a few applications, basically those released by Apple, were able to take advantage of its multiple cores. Applications like Safari performed very well on the iPad 2 compared to the original iPad, but some third-party browsers did not perform as well as Safari.

    pdf58p oscarlee 23-08-2012 37 7   Download

  • While there is a study guide (available from Ventus) that focuses largely on objects and their characteristics, it will be instructive to the learner (of the Java programming language) to understand how the concept of an object is applied to their construction and use in Java applications.

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  • The professionalization of web development has been a difficult journey because of our disparate beginnings. Even those who end up at large companies such as Yahoo! inevitably began on their own, hacking around. Perhaps you were even “the web guy” at a small company and could do pretty much whatever you wanted. When the large companies started tapping this previously undiscovered resource, it brought a lot of hackers into a corporate environment, where they were met with constraints.

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  • The target audience for the book is BA students, covering the introductory syntax level and going through to more advanced BA level material. For this reason, the book starts from the beginning and tries to make as few assumptions as possible about linguistic notions. The first two chapters are a fairly substantial introduction to grammatical concepts both from a descriptive and a theoretical...

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  • Gives learners access to real language through a rich mixture of highly readable authentic texts selected from recently published sources, both British and American. Reflects the stylistic variety that advanced learners have to be able to deal with. Gives practice in specific points of grammar to consolidate and extend learners' existing knowledge. Analysis of syntax helps learners to develop their reading and comprehension skills. Grammar notes give explanations of points of grammar and syntax and include answers.

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  • The structure of this book remains essentially the same as that of the first edition. The most obvious difference is the collapsing of chapters 11 and 12 into one (adjectival and adverbial groups), leaving 12 (prepositions and the prepositional phrase) as the final chapter. Following the welcome feedback from reviewers and consultants, there has also been some rearrangement of the material: in particular, the section on negation has been brought forward to Chapter 1, and the syntax of prepositional and phrasal verbs is made more explicit in Chapter 2.

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  • This book is intended to be a complete and useful reference to the Unified Model- ing Language (UML) for the developer, architect, project manager, system engi- neer, programmer, analyst, contracting officer, customer, and anyone else who needs to specify, design, build, or understand complex software systems. It pro- vides a full reference to the concepts and constructs of UML, including their se- mantics, syntax, notation, and purpose. It is organized to be a convenient but thorough reference for the working professional developer.

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  • Languages are natural forms of communication; children quickly learn to communicate using their native language, and soon master the main rules of grammar or syntax without being taught. Indeed, we cannot communicate efficiently if we do not master the essential principles of grammar or syntax. If we imagine language as a big highway, the road and the cars are the words, but the grammar is the road signs and markings that tell the cars and lorries where to go and how to drive. Without roadsigns, a big highway would quickly descend into total confusion....

    pdf252p nam999 05-09-2012 134 79   Download

  • You should approach the topics in this section as a progressive development of an example of a WSDL document. Explain the concepts in the first topic with a simple Web Service that has only one operation that returns a class, (the code is defined in the student notes). Progressively build upon this example WSDL document when you explain each of the WSDL topics. The intent of teaching WSDL syntax is not for students to write a WSDL document from scratch on their own.

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  • Learning jQuery : Better Interaction Design and Web Development with Simple JavaScript Techniques. This book is for web designers who want to create interactive elements for their designs, and for developers who want to create the best user interface for their web applications. The reader will need the basics of HTML and CSS, and should be comfortable with the syntax of JavaScript. No knowledge of jQuery is assumed, nor is experience with any other JavaScript libraries required.

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  • The obvious common feature of properties and indexers is that they both use get and set accessor syntax. This module does not cover the more advanced aspects of properties and indexers, such as their use in interfaces or their use with virtual, abstract, override, and new modifiers. After completing this module, students will be able to: Create properties to encapsulate data within a class. Define indexers to use objects with array-like notation.

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  • As Web sites and intranets become larger and more complex, static HTML files hit their limits. In the first part of Web Application Development with PHP the authors explain PHP's advanced syntax like classes, recursive functions and variables. They present software development methodologies and coding conventions which are a must-know for industry quality products as well as to help making develop faster and more productive. This part covers also many standard algorithms for tree-structures, string sorting and searching. ...

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  • t is very difficult to determine what are the most popular of modern programming languages. Some languages are very popular for particular kinds of applications (e.g., COBOL is still strong in the corporate data center[citation needed], often on large mainframes, FORTRAN in engineering applications, scripting languages in Web development, and C in embedded applications), while some languages are regularly used to write many different kinds of applications. Also many applications use a mix of several languages in their construction and use.

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