Theoretical review

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  • The other group of articles is rather empirical in nature and estimate a long-run relationship between the aggregated value of credit and a set of standard macroeconomic factors such as output, prices or interest rates. The main ¯nding of these studies is that for most countries the value of credit tend to increase with GDP and asset prices, and to decrease with the level of interest rates (see Egert et al., 2007 and references therein).

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  • Review of empirical relationships between inlet cross-section and tidal prism. This contribution compares some theoretical elaborations both qualitatively and quantitatively, confront these with US and Dutch empirical data and discuss their pros and cons for practical applications.

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  • Overall, this review provides a glimpse of the ayurvedic approach to cancer diagnosis and treatment. This review also attempts to reveal how these approaches can be employed in today’s world. Cancers of the colon, lung, breast, and prostate are most prevalent in the Western world. The mortality and morbidity in India owing to all of these cancers is very low. For example, the incidence of prostate cancer is 50-fold less in India compared with the United States.

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  • The book consists of 29 chapters. Chapters 1 to 9 describe the algorithms for enhancing the search performance of evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm, Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Quantum-inspired Algorithm. Chapter 10 introduces the programming language for evolutionary algorithm. Chapter 11 explains evolutionary algorithms for the fuzzy data problems. Chapters 12 to 13 discuss theoretical analysis of evolutionary algorithms. The remaining chapters describe the applications of the evolutionary algorithms. ...

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  • The editors express gratitude to the people whose advice and help at critical points in the project helped the volume come to fruition. Leanne Nash, Catherine Tucker, Glenn Stone, Dick Norgaard, as well as reviewers for New York University Press, pointed us to useful publications. Nora Haenn worked on the reader as a Mellon Foundation Fellow in Anthropology and Demography while at the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina. In addition to the Foundation, she thanks the Carolina Population Center for building such a supportive research atmosphere.

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  • The contributed articles are presented in two volumes. The readers interested in ex- perimental studies of graphene are referred to the fi rst volume. The second volume contains theoretical contributions, divided into fi ve Sections. In Part I ab initio studies of the electronic structure of graphene in the presence of defects and impurities are described. In Part II the theory of graphene nano-fl akes and nano-ribbons is presented.

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  • It also reviews different valuation methods and estimated values for non-market forest goods and services in Europe. Chapter 5 gives an overview of the financing mechanisms used in the Member States and their applicability for different goods and services. It includes a theoretical review of alternative financing mechanisms for non-market forest goods and services (FG&S) as well as an empirical assessment of their use in Europe and EU Member States (EU MS).

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  • The observed differences between willingness to pay and willingness to accept have been labeled an “endowment effect”, intimating that the phenomena is due to loss- aversion to the domain of choices over bundles of goods and money (Thaler, 1980; Tversky and Kahneman, 1991;Camerer, Loewenstein and Prelec,2003). The theoretical idea is that an individual who owns a good anticipates a loss from the sale and, thus requires a higher payoff than the individual would pay to acquire the good if it were not owned (Kahneman 1991, Kahneman 1990, Knetsch 1989, Knetsch 1984).

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  • Advances in Taxation (AIT) is a refereed academic tax journal published annu- ally . Academic articles on any aspect of federal, state, local, or international taxation will be considered . These include, but are not limited to, compliance, computer usage, education, law, planning, and policy . Interdisciplinary research involving: economics, finance, or other areas is also encouraged . Acceptable research methods include any analytical, behavioral, descriptive, legal, quanti- tative, survey, or theoretical approach appropriate for the project .

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  • Antoñanzas and Rodríguez-Ibeas Health Economics Review 2011, 1:4 http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/4 RESEARCH Open Access Healthy vs. unhealthy food: a strategic choice for firms and consumers Fernando Antoñanzas* and Roberto Rodríguez-Ibeas Abstract In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes.

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  • This book brings together two of the important intellectual or theoretical issues of concern to students of comparative constitutional law as it has developed in the United States over the past decade.

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  • Exciting new observational and theoretical advances lead today's solar physicists to challenge many of the predictions of even recent models. This volume summarizes the major questions at the forefront of solar physics theory and observations, and proposes priority recommendations to explore these questions.

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  • Examples of embedded derivatives which are not required to be separated A derivative embedded in an insurance contract is considered to be closely related to the host insurance contract if the embedded derivative and the host insurance contract are so interdependent that an entity cannot measure the embedded derivative separately. In this situation, an entity would not separate the embedded derivative.

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  • Although the results of many recent research impacts studies support the view that investments in agricultural research continue to generate attractive rates of return, some people are uncomfortable with the limitations of the economic framework. Their concern is understandable, because economic rate-of-returns analysis is, in some ways, poorly suited for evaluating an activity (agricultural research) whose primary outputs (technological innovations) are essentially a means of achieving broader welfare goals that cannot easily be measured, much less valued.

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  • Wolfenstetter and Wenig Health Economics Review 2011, 1:17 http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/17 REVIEW Open Access Costing of physical activity programmes in primary prevention: a review of the literature Silke B Wolfenstetter1 and Christina M Wenig1,2* Abstract This literature review aims to analyse the costing methodology in economic analyses of primary preventive physical activity programmes. It demonstrates the usability of a recently published theoretical framework in practice, and may serve as a guide for future economic evaluation studies and for decision making.

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  • Real estate markets globally have been severely affected by ongoing unprecedented economic turmoil, particularly in Europe and the United States. This is expected to continue. The Australian real estate market has, in this time, emerged as a destination of choice for global real estate investors seeking a safe haven in a well-regulated and highly transparent growth-oriented market for doing business.

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  • Our results suggest that stronger competition implies significantly lower interest rate spreads for most loan market products, as we expected. This result implies that bank interest rates are lower and that the pass-through of market rates is stronger, the heavier competition is. We find evidence of the latter in our error correction model of bank interest rates. Furthermore, when loan market competition is stronger, we observe larger bank spreads (that is, lower bank interest rates) on current account and time deposits.

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  • Finally, the individuals who are at the core of healthcare—patients—face challenges of their own. In early 2010, one out of seven U.S. citizens was uninsured or underin- sured—roughly 45 million people. 6 In addition, uninsured medical costs are the num- ber one cause of personal bankruptcy. 7 Without a doubt, healthcare is currently in a quality, safety, and cost crisis—one that exhibits symptoms at the individual, organizational, and societal level. However, we must acknowledge that this sense of crisis is not new.

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  • After you've bored your friends, relatives and pets to death, you should give seminar. This is a really important phase: the more you can talk about your work, the better the nal paper will be. This is because a talk forces you to get to the point. If you want your audience to listen to you, you've got to make your idea clear, concise, and organized|and the experience that you gain by doing this is extremely useful for writing your paper. I listen to a lot of stupid ideas|but that's what I'm paid to do. Lots of people listen to stupid ideas from me, too: my...

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  • It asks that the reader become a participant in a process that requires reading and analysing each initiative using different theoretical lenses. Each «experience» is organised around a theme, a learning objective, a description of an actual natural resource management and communication initiative, and one or two theoretical lenses through which to analyse the initiative. As you work through each «experience», you will be asked questions about the theory and change principles and how they relate to the initiative.

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