This subject focuses on management accounting for cost and control purposes in an organisational context. Emphasises the use of quantitative techniques and computer software including spreadsheets and presentation graphics.
A natural next step in the evolution of constraint-based grammar formalisms from rewriting formalisms is to abstract fully away from the details of the grammar mechanism--to express syntactic theories purely in terms of the properties of the class of structures they license.
This chapter presents the following content: Production activity control - an overview, manufacturing planning and control linkages, production activity control techniques, theory of constraints, vendor scheduling, principles.
After studying this chapter, you will know: Explain how to use target costing to facilitate strategic management, apply the theory of constraints (TOC) to strategic cost management, describe how life-cycle costing facilitates strategic management, outline the objectives and techniques of strategic pricing.
This paper proposes a set of representations for tenses and a set of constraints on how they can be combined in adjunct clauses. The semantics we propose explains the possible meanings of tenses in a variety of sentential contexts. It also supports an elegant constraint on tense combination in adjunct clauses. These semantic representations provide insights into the interpretations of tenses, and the constraints provide a source of syntactic disambiguation that has not previously been demonstrated.
After completing this chapter, students will be able to: See how a budget constraint represents the choices a consumer can afford, learn how indifference curves can be used to represent a consumer’s preferences, analyze how a consumer’s optimal choices are determined,...
The cognitive radio paradigm is based on the ability of sensing the radio environment in order to make informed decisions. This paper describes the effects of sensing on the cognitive radio channels capacity region. Sensing is modeled as a compression channel, which results in partial knowledge of the primary messages at the cognitive transmitter. This model enables to impose constraints on the sensing strategy. First, the dirty paper channel capacity is derived when the channel encoder knows partially the side information.
Practitioners of the theory of constraints (TOC) have been waiting for this
book for a long time. Many of you reading this now have had substantial
exposure to TOC and perhaps even experience with it. Those who have
not will benefit by knowing a little background.
TOC, as a management approach, has been around for almost two
decades, and its creator, Eliyahu M. Goldratt, has been applying the basic
principles even longer than that.
The purpose of this book is to offer a unifying conceptual framework
for the normative study of taxation and related subjects in public eco-
nomics. Such a framework necessarily begins with a statement of the
social objective, taken here to be the maximization of a conventional
social welfare function, and then asks how various government instru-
ments are best orchestrated to achieve it. The structure is built on the
foundation provided by the fundamental theorems of welfare econom-
Where the two terms differ is in the imposition by organisations of courteous or forced
ritual behaviour on employees – a modern phenomenon. Insincerity is concealed, leading to the
whimsical even offensive notion that we are all air hostesses now. There are moral implications
here too. Sprezzatura could be aligned to the moral theories of hedonism and egoism – where the
focus is on the individual who decides to pursue a working life of fulfilment based on self
interest, by the appearance of relaxed competence that may or may not be borne out by actual
effectiveness at work....
The relational Model of Data is based on the concept of a Relation.
A Relation is a mathematical concept based on the ideas of sets.
The strength of the relational approach to data management comes from the formal foundation provided by the theory of relations.
We review the essentials of the relational approach in this chapter.
This paper explores the relationshiDs between a computational meory of temporal representation (as developed by James Alien) and a Iormal linguiStiC theory Of tense (as developed by NorOert Hornstem) and aspect.
There were three invited talks from distinguished scientists: Robert Nieuwenhuis,
Edward Tsang and Moshe Vardi. These proceedings include abstracts of
each of their presentations. Details of the wide variety of workshops and the four
tutorials that took place as part of the conference are also included.
I would like to thank the Association for Constraint Programming (ACP)
for inviting me to be Program Chair.
Existing plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. We use patterns of linguistic features (e.g. mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to suggest a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are filtered using plan-bused conversational implicatures to eliminate inappropriate ones. Extended plan reasoning is available but not necessary for familiar forms.
In this paper we describe an approach to constraint based syntactic theories in terms of finite tree automata. The solutions to constraints expressed in weak monadic second order (MSO) logic are represented by tree a u t o m a t a recognizing the assignments which make the formulas true. We show that this allows an efficient representation of knowledge about the content of constraints which can be used as a practical tool for grammatical theory verification. We achieve this by using the intertranslatability of formulae of MSO logic and tree a u t o m a t a...
This work is concerned with the development of instruments for GB parsing. An alternative to the well known indexation system of (Chomsky, 1981) will be proposed and then used to formalize the view of Binding Theory in terms of the generation of constraints on the referential properties of the NPs of a sentence. Finally the problems of verification and satisfiability of BT will be addressed within the proposed framework.
Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Traditionally, meanings are combined via function composition, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. More recently, the functional structure of LFG has been used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. ...
According to Dr. Goldratt, synchronous manufacturing refers to the entire production process working together in harmony to achieve the goals of the firm. Synchronous manufacturing logic attempts to coordinate all resources so that they work together and are in harmony or are "synchronized." The goal is on total system performance, not on localized measures such as labor or machine utilization.
The paper develops a constraint-based theory of prosodic phrasing and prominence, based on an HPSG framework, with an implementation in ALE. Prominence and juncture are represented by n-ary branching metrical trees. The general aim is to deﬁne prosodic structures recursively, in parallel with the deﬁnition of syntactic structures. We address a number of prima facie problems arising from the discrepancy between syntactic and prosodic structure .
In recent years,a great deal of evidence has been collected which gives substantially increased insight into the nature of human speech perception. It is the author's belief that such data can be effectively used to infer much of the structure of a practical speech recognition system. This paper details a new view of the role of structural constraints within the several structural domains (e.g. articulation, phonetics, phonology, syntax, semantics) that must be utilized to infer the desired percept. ...