Crystal growth is an important process, which forms the basis for a wide variety of natural phenomena and engineering developments. This book provides a unique opportunity for a reader to gain knowledge about various aspects of crystal growth from advanced inorganic materials to inorganic/organic composites, it unravels some problems of molecular crystallizations and shows advances in growth of pharmaceutical crystals, it tells about biomineralization of mollusks and cryoprotection of living cells, it gives a chance to learn about statistics of chiral asymmetry in crystal structure....
The skin is the largest organ of the body and its main function is to protect the organism against
undesirable effects of the environment. The skin is composed of three different layers: epidermis, dermis and
hypodermis. The epidermis contains the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis, that acts as the
barrier function of the skin due to its very high density and its low hydration. The dermis is an extensive vascular
network providing skin nutrition, repair, thermal regulation and immune response.
Widespread thermal anomalies in 1997–1998,
due primarily to regional effects of the El Nin˜ o–Southern
Oscillation and possibly augmented by global
warming, caused severe coral bleaching worldwide.
Corals in all habitats alongthe Belizean barrier reef
bleached as a result of elevated sea temperatures in the
summer and fall of 1998, and in fore-reef habitats of the
outer barrier reef and offshore platforms they showed
signs of recovery in 1999. In contrast, coral populations
on reefs in the central shelf lagoon died off catastrophically.
Recent years have witnessed high levels of activity in identifying enzyme systems that catalyse H-transfer by quantum tunneling. Rather than being restricted to a small number of speciﬁc enzymes as perceived initially, it has now become an accepted mechanism for H-transfer in a growing number of enzymes. Furthermore, H-tunneling is driven by the thermally induced dynamics of the enzyme. In some of those enzymes that break stable C–H bonds the reaction proceeds purely by quantum tunneling, without the need to partially ascend the barrier.