Explosives and propellants contain considerable chemical energy that can be converted into rapid expansion. In contrast to the simple burning of a fuel, explosives and propellants are self-contained and do not need an external supply of oxygen via air. Since their energy content inherently creates the risk of accidental triggering of the explosive reaction, the correct synthesis, formulation, and handling during production and use are of utmost importance for safety, necessitating specialist knowledge on energetic materials, their characteristics, handling and applications.
All physical and chemical processes are
accompanied by the transfer of energy. Thermodynamics: Study the energy
changes that accompany physical and
chemical processes. Thermochemistry: observe, measure, and
predict energy changes (heat) for both
physical changes and chemical reactions.
Physical chemistry is an unexpected shock to many university students. From the semi-
empirical approaches of the school laboratory, first year undergraduates suddenly find
themselves propelled into an unexpected quagmire of definitions and equations. Worse
still, although the applicability of the subject is sometimes obvious, studying the behavior
of a particle in an infinitely deep well can seem nothing short of farcical on first
Physica l Properties of Solutions
Setup Because the vo lume of the solution described is 1 L, thenumber of moles is also the molarity
for each solute. R = 0.08206 L . atm/mol . K, T in Ringer's lactate are as follows:
NaCI(s) KCI(s) CaCI 2 (s) NaCH 3CH2COO(s)
= 310 K, and the van't Hoff factors for the solutes.