Thermodynamic processes

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  • The first law of thermodynamics gives the quantiative relations between the internal energy of a system and the quantities of heat and work that the system exchange with surroundings. It express the conservation of energy. The first law of thermodynamics is true, but not enough ! Why ? Many thermodynamic processes which don’t violate the 1st law, but don’t happen in nature !

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  • Thermodynamics is an essential subject taught to all science and engineering students. If the coverage of this subject is restricted to theoretical analysis, student will resort to memorising the facts in order to pass the examination. Therefore, this book is set out with the aim to present this subject from an angle of demonstration of how these laws are used in practical situation.This book is designed for the virtual reader in mind, it is concise and easy to read, yet it presents all the basic laws of thermodynamics in a simplistic and straightforward manner....

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  • Alciatore/Histand Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement System Anderson Fundamentals of Aerodynamics Anderson Introduction to Flight Anderson Modern Compressible Flow Barber Intermediate Mechanics of Materials Beer/Johnston Vector Mechanics for Engineers Beer/Johnston Mechanics of Materials Budynas Advanced Strength and Applied Stress Analysis Budynas/Nisbett Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design Cengel Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach Cengel Introduction to Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer Cengel/Boles Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach Cengel/Clmbala Fluid Mechanics: Fund...

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  • The present text introduces the use of fluidised bed processing in the context of wet granulation and coating. The text also covers introductory information about the mechanical properties of dry granules. This is a scientific field rarely taught at universities or engineering schools around the world although it has enormous and ever increasing relevance to the chemical and biochemical industries. Often students are left with nothing but qualitative tendencies and hands-on experience as no textbook yet covers all relevant subjects treated in this text....

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  • Based on irreversible thermodynamics, a new approach to study sorption in polymer has been proposed [1]. This treatment gives a standpoint different from the existing sorption models [2 - 9] not only in interpretation and nature, but also in analytical expression. Moreover, the model also accounts for diffusion and the other internal processes stimulated by sorption such as swelling, plasticization, crystallization etc. Some experimental results of fluid sorption in polymer have been interpreted by this model.

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  • Spontaneous processes, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics, the molecular interpretation of entropy, gibbs free energy, free energy and the equilibrium constant,... is the main content of the lecture "Chapter 19: Chemical Thermodynamics". Invite you to consult the detailed content lectures to capture details.

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction and basic concepts. The objectives of Chapter 1 are to: Identify the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamics through the precise definition of basic concepts to form a sound foundation for the development of the principles of thermodynamics; review the metric SI and the English unit systems that will be used throughout the text; explain the basic concepts of thermodynamics such as system, state, state postulate, equilibrium, process, and cycle; review concepts of temperature, temperature scales, pressure, and absolute and gage pressure.

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  • Chapter 3 - Properties of pure substances. We start this chapter with the introduction of the concept of a pure substance and a discussion of the physics of phase-change processes. We then illustrate the various property diagrams and P-v-T surfaces of pure substances. After demonstrating the use of the property tables, the hypothetical substance ideal gas and the ideal-gas equation of state are discussed.

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  • Chapter 4 - Energy analysis of closed systems. The objectives of Chapter 4 are to: Examine the moving boundary work or P dV work commonly encountered in reciprocating devices such as automotive engines and compressors, identify the first law of thermodynamics as simply a statement of the conservation of energy principle for closed (fixed mass) systems, develop the general energy balance applied to closed systems,...

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  • Chapter 5 (Part 2) - Mass and energy analysis of control volumes. The objectives of this chapter are to: Solve energy balance problems for common steady-flow devices such as nozzles, compressors, turbines, throttling valves, mixers, heaters, and heat exchangers; apply the energy balance to general unsteady-flow processes with particular emphasis on the uniform-flow process as the model for commonly encountered charging and discharging processes.

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  • Chapter 6 - The second law of thermodynamics. In this chapter, the thermal energy reservoirs, reversible and irreversible processes, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are introduced first. Various statements of the second law are followed by a discussion of perpetualmotion machines and the thermodynamic temperature scale. The Carnot cycle is introduced next, and the Carnot principles are discussed. Finally, the idealized Carnot heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are examined.

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  • Chapter 7 (part 1) - Entropy: A measure of disorder. The objectives of Chapter 7 are to: Apply the second law of thermodynamics to processes; define a new property called entropy to quantify the second-law effects; establish the increase of entropy principle; Calculate the entropy changes that take place during processes for pure substances, incompressible substances, and ideal gases.

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  • Chapter 8 - Exergy: A measure of work potential. In this chapter, we examine the performance of engineering devices in light of the second law of thermodynamics. We start our discussions with the introduction of exergy (also called availability), which is the maximum useful work that could be obtained from the system at a given state in a specified environment, and we continue with the reversible work, which is the maximum useful work that can be obtained as a system undergoes a process between two specified states.

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  • Chapter 10 - Vapor and combined power cycles. In Chapter 9 we discussed gas power cycles for which the working fluid remains a gas throughout the entire cycle. In this chapter, we consider vapor power cycles in which the working fluid is alternatively vaporized and condensed. We also consider power generation coupled with process heating called cogeneration.

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction and basic concepts. This chapter identify the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamics through the precise definition of basic concepts to form a sound foundation for the development of the scientific principles to follow and to prevent possible misunderstandings.

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  • Chapter 3 - Properties of pure substances. The objectives of Chapter 3 are to: Introduce the concept of a pure substance, discuss the physics of phase-change processes. Illustrate the P-v, T-v, and P-T property diagrams and P-v-T surfaces of pure substances, demonstrate the procedures for determining thermodynamic properties of pure substances from tables of property data, describe the hypothetical substance “ideal gas” and the ideal-gas equation of state,...

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  • Chapter 6 - The second law of thermodynamics. Introduce the second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that energy has quality as well as quantity; identify valid processes as those that satisfy both the first and second laws of thermodynamics; introduce the concepts of thermal energy reservoirs, reversible and irreversible processes, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps;...

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  • Chapter 7.1 - Entropy: A measure of disorder. The objectives of this chapter are to: Apply the second law to processes; define a new property called entropy as it applies to commonly encountered engineering processes; discuss the Clausius inequality, which forms the basis for the definition of entropy;...

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  • Chapter 8 - Exergy: A measure of work potential. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Examine the performance of engineering devices in light of the second law of thermodynamics; define exergy (also called availability), which is the maximum useful work that could be obtained from the system at a given state in a specified environment; define reversible work, which is the maximum useful work that can be obtained as a system undergoes a process between two specified states;...

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  • Chapter 10 - Vapor and combined power cycles. The objectives of Chapter 10 are to: Analyze vapor power cycles in which the working fluid is alternately vaporized and condensed, analyze power generation coupled with process heating called cogeneration, investigate ways to modify the basic Rankine vapor power cycle to increase the cycle thermal efficiency.

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