This paper discusses a proposal by Alexander Gode that Interlingua be used as an intermediate language for mechanical translation. The wordby-word translations proposed by Gode from Interlingua into English are not always easily understandable or editable, because of the presence in Interlingua of idioms, reflexive verbs, multiple meanings for particles and other words, and non-English word-order. Some revisions in Interlingua are suggested which would make it more useful for mechanical translation....
Food availability, access, stability and utilization are all part of the multi-dimensional nature of food security. The “availability” aspect, discussed here, refers to the availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or inputs.
Productivity is usually considered the ultimate benchmark when comparing the performance of agricultural systems. For example, those involved in agricultural research and development want to know how much yield would be reduced if conventional agriculture were converted to organic agriculture.
This paper discusses the effects of bank competition on bank loan and deposit rate levels as well as on
their responses to changes in market rates and, hence, on the monetary policy transmission mechanism.
Given the prominent role of the banking sector in the euro area’s financial system, it is of significant
importance for the ECB to monitor the degree of competitive behaviour in the euro area banking
market. A more competitive banking market is expected to drive down bank loan rates, adding to the
welfare of households and enterprises.
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This paper discusses the treatment of fixed word expressions developed for our ITS-2 FrenchEnglish translation system. This treatment makes a clear distinction between compounds - i.e. multiword expressions of X°-level in which the chunks are adjacent - and idiomatic phrases - i.e. multiword expressions of phrasal categories, where the chunks are not necessarily adjacent.
This paper discusses an implemented program that automatically classifies verbs into those that ~describe only states of the world, such as to know, and those that describe events, such as to look. It works by exploiting the con, straint between the syntactic environments in which a verb can occur and its meaning. The only input is on-line text. This demonstrates an important new technique for the automatic generation of lexical databases.
Bài này bàn về vấn đề nhận diện câu khái quát (generic sentence) với các dấu hiệu hình
thức khác nhau từ cấp độ cấu trúc câu cho đến các dấu hiệu vi mô trên cấp độ từ với chức
năng bổ ngữ và các dấu hiệu ngữ pháp như thì (tense). Kết quả khảo sát được thuyết giải
định tính như là cơ sở nhận diện câu khái quát đối với người Việt học tiếng Anh.
Choosing an IP routing protocol is an important step. The right protocol can make your routing
operate efficiently, and the wrong one can make your life difficult. Each protocol has its own
pros and cons, and works better in some situations than others. In this paper, we explore the
strengths and weakness of RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, and IS-IS, and discuss when it is appropriate to
use each. We will evaluate each protocol in terms of five criteria:
• Convergence speed
• Ease of use
• Network topology required
• Vendor support
• IPv6 support...
This paper discusses features of small firms that combine to constitute a different milieu for
knowledge management. It reports upon work conducted with many small firms and presents
a model of considerations and phases in knowledge management projects in small-firm
settings. Copyright # 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This report provides a summary of some of the existing knowledge and literature related to the production of woody biomass from bioenergy with a particular focus on the economic perspective. The most commonly discussed woody biomass feedstocks are described along with results of existing economic modeling studies related to the provision of biomass from short rotation woody crops, harvest residues, and hazardous fuel reduction efforts. Additionally, the existing social science literature is used to highlight some challenges to widespread production of biomass energy.
This paper discusses research on distinguishing word meanings in the context of information retrieval systems. We conducted experiments with three sources of evidence for making these distinctions: morphology, part-of-speech, and phrases. We have focused on the distinction between h o m o n y m y and polysemy (unrelated vs. related meanings). Our results support the need to distinguish h o m o n y m y and p o l y semy. We found: 1) grouping morphological variants makes a significant improvement in retrieval performance, 2) that more than half of all words in a dictionary that differ...
Growth in wireless services is increasing the number of copper and fiber cables that must be managed – causing an increased workload for reconfigurations and maintenance. Meeting the challenge of increasing profits in the face of fewer capital and operating resources to manage this steadily growing and more complex wireless network infrastructure requires improvements in operational efficiency from Network Operations.
Weblogs and message boards provide online forums for discussion
that record the voice of the public. Woven into this
mass of discussion is a wide range of opinion and commentary
about consumer products. This presents an opportunity
for companies to understand and respond to the consumer
by analyzing this unsolicited feedback. Given the
volume, format and content of the data, the appropriate approach
to understand this data is to use large-scale web and
text data mining technologies.
This paper discusses a decision-tree approach to the problem of assigning probabilities to words following a given text. In contrast with previous decision-tree language model attempts, an algorithm for selecting nearly optimal questions is considered. The model is to be tested on a standard task, The Wall Street Journal, allowing a fair comparison with the well-known trigram model.
This paper will discuss how to determine word stress from spelling. Stress assignment is a well-established weak point for many speech synthesizers because stress dependencies cannot be determined locally. It is impossible to determine the stress of a word by looking through a five or six character window, as many speech synthesizers do. Wellknown examples such as degrade / dbgradl,tion and tMegraph / telegraph5 demonstrate that stress dependencies can span over two and three syllables. This paper will pre~nt a principled framework for dealing with these long distance dependencies.
This paper discusses debris and mud flash flood, which is a widespread phenomenon with different levels of damaging effects and repetition in the mountainous areas of Vietnam. There are some sites where the flash flood with severe debris components has recurred many times and it has always caused heavy loss of human and materials, such as Lay Nua Commune, the Former
This section discusses the development of the contracting literature and contractual uses of accounting. It develops implications for relative abilities of earnings and cash flows to forecast future cash flows and for the times series properties of earnings and cash flows.
The modern economic theory of the firm views the firm as a set of contracts between a multitude of parties. The underlying hypothesis is that the firm's "contractual designs, both implicit and explicit, are created to minimize transactions costs between specialized factors of production" (Holmstrom and Tirole, 1989, p.
Early care and education (ECE) is an important industry in California, serving more than 850,000
California children and their families and bringing in gross receipts of at least $5.6 billion annually.
The industry not only benefits the children who receive care, but also strengthens the California
economy as a whole, which is especially important during this time in which California is struggling
with high unemployment and a weak economic recovery. This paper discusses the range of
economic benefits that the ECE industry brings to California. ...
Machine translation of locative prepositions is not straightforward, even between closely related languages. This paper discusses a system of translation of locative prepositions between English and French. The system is based on the premises that English and French do not always conceptualize objects in the same way, and that this accounts for the major differences in the ways that locative prepositions are used in these languages.