Sudden cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmia play a prominent role in mortality in our era. One of the biggest milestones in the therapy of ventricular arrhythmias was the invention of cardiac defibrillation. There were several important developments in the last decades, making nowadays automated external and internal defibrillators widely available.
OCC has developed a procedure known as Exercise By Exception to expedite its
processing of exercises of expiring options by certain brokerage firms that are Clearing
Members of OCC. Under this procedure, which is sometimes referred to as "ex-by-ex",
OCC has established in-the-money thresholds and every contract at or above its in-the-
money threshold will be exercised unless OCC's Clearing Member specifically
instructs OCC to the contrary. Conversely, a contract under its in-the-money threshold
will not be exercised unless OCC's Clearing Member specifically instructs OCC to do
Variation exists in the current evidence base with regard to the optimum RMI I threshold
that should be applied in secondary care. The cut-off levels used will have implications
for both the management options considered and the number of women who will be
referred for specialist treatment. Therefore it is important to establish the relative
sensitivities and specificities at the different levels. The research should be a prospective
observational cohort study evaluating women referred with suspected ovarian cancer.
The Education Savings Bond Program permits qualified taxpayers to exclude from their gross
income all or a portion of the interest earned on the redemption of eligible Series EE and
Series I bonds issued after 1989. You must be at least 24 years old before the bond's issue
date. To qualify for this exclusion, the taxpayer, the taxpayer's spouse, or the taxpayer's
dependent at certain post-secondary educational institutions must incur tuition and other
educational expenses. Persons with incomes above certain thresholds may not be eligible to
Whilst some men with a PSA below the currently accepted “normal” age-specific threshold
will have prostate cancer, it is also true that many men with a PSA above this threshold will
not have prostate cancer as an elevated PSA can be attributable to a number of benign
conditions as well apart from the presence of prostate cancer. Considerable efforts have been
made to improve the sensitivity and specificity of PSA testing including the adoption of
free-to-total PSA ratios, %free PSA, [-2]pro-PSA, PSA density and PSA velocity.
Calculating sensitivity and specificity requires selection of a decision value for the test to define the threshold value at or above which the test is considered "positive." For any given test, as this cut point is moved to improve sensitivity, specificity typically falls and vice versa.
This dynamic tradeoff between more accurate identification of subjects with disease versus those without disease is often displayed graphically as a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Fig. 3-1). An ROC curve plots sensitivity (y-axis) versus 1 – specificity (x-axis).
Stereopsis Stereoacuity is determined by presenting targets with retinal disparity separately to each eye using polarized images. The most popular office tests measure a range of thresholds from 800–40 seconds of arc. Normal stereoacuity is 40 seconds of arc. If a patient achieves this level of stereoacuity, one is assured that the eyes are aligned orthotropically and that vision is intact in each eye. Random dot stereograms have no monocular depth cues and provide an excellent screening test for strabismus and amblyopia in children.
The PSA criteria used to recommend a diagnostic prostate biopsy have evolved over time. The goal is to increase the sensitivity of the test for younger men more likely to die of the disease and to reduce the frequency of detecting cancers of low malignant potential in elderly men more likely to die of other causes. Age-specific reference ranges reduce the upper limit of normal for younger men and increase it for older men. Different thresholds alter the sensitivity and specificity of detection. The threshold for performance of a biopsy was 4.0 ng/mL, which has been reduced to 2.6...
To receive the earned income credit, taxpayers ﬁle their regular tax re-
turn and ﬁll out the six-line Schedule EIC that gathers information about
qualifying children. The EITC is refundable, meaning that it is paid out by
the Treasury regardless of whether the taxpayer has any federal income tax
liability. There are several basic tests for EITC eligibility. The taxpayer
must have both earned and adjusted gross income below a threshold that
varies by year and by family size. Most EITC payments go to taxpayers
with at least one “qualifying child.
What are anomalies/outliers?
The set of data points that are considerably different than the remainder of the data
Variants of Anomaly/Outlier Detection Problems
Given a database D, find all the data points x D with anomaly scores greater than some threshold t
Given a database D, find all the data points x D having the top-n largest anomaly scores f(x)
Given a database D, containing mostly normal (but unlabeled) data points, and a test point x, compute the anomaly score of x with respect to D
Credit card fraud detection, telecommunication fraud detection, netwo...
Approach to the Patient: Disorders of the Sense of Smell Unilateral anosmia is rarely a complaint and is only recognized by testing of smell in each nasal cavity separately. Bilateral anosmia, on the other hand, brings patients to medical attention. Anosmic patients usually complain of a loss of the sense of taste even though their taste thresholds may be within normal limits. In actuality, they are complaining of a loss of flavor detection, which is mainly an olfactory function.
Distinguishing Cardiovascular from Respiratory System Dyspnea If a patient has evidence of both pulmonary and cardiac disease, a cardiopulmonary exercise test should be carried out to determine which system is responsible for the exercise limitation. If, at peak exercise, the patient achieves predicted maximal ventilation, demonstrates an increase in dead space or hypoxemia (oxygen saturation below 90%), or develops bronchospasm, the respiratory system is probably the cause of the problem.
This paper presents results from experiments in automatic classiﬁcation of animacy for Norwegian nouns using decision-tree classiﬁers. The method makes use of relative frequency measures for linguistically motivated morphosyntactic features extracted from an automatically annotated corpus of Norwegian. The classiﬁers are evaluated using leave-oneout training and testing and the initial results are promising (approaching 90% accuracy) for high frequency nouns, however deteriorate gradually as lower frequency nouns are classiﬁed.