The issue of energy conservation has been with us since the seventies and there has
not been a dearth of ideas and increase of knowledge arising from research from
various disciplines ever since. The importanceof energy conservation has been on the
increase that has resulted in the need toproduce books to introduce new and richer
findings and applications in this field.
This book comprises of nine chapters which cover several disciplines. Each chapter has
been carefully written by leading teams of experts from various parts of the world.
This book covers the areas of fundamentals in energy conservation and its applications in selected industries. There are nine chapters in this book which have been written by leading experts in energy from all over the world. The topics range from energy fundamentals from cosmic radiation, tidal waves and dams. The chapters examine the potential of utilizing energy from sustainable resources and how energy consumption may be conserved from various new technologies.
Today, the energy supply is primarily based on the combustion of fossil fuels. Electricity generation is the main driver for carbon dioxide emissions in stationary applications, whereas vehicles powered by internal combustion engines are a major source of distributed carbon dioxide emissions. The generation of electricity from renewable energy sources such as solar power, wind power, tidal power, or the use of biomass is reducing the burden from carbon dioxide emissions.
In electrical power generation system the present trend is to maximize the renewable
energy penetration ratio as much as possible. Among the renewable energy sources such as
wind, solar, biogas/biomass, tidal, geothermal, etc., wind energy has the huge potential to
play an important role in energy market along with conventional energy sources. Therefore,
reasonably the research on wind power is progressing rapidly.
The relative distribution of market value across the sectors is shown in Figure 3. Six of the 23 products
and services ‐ Alternative Fuels (17.3%), Building Technologies (12.1%), Alternative Fuels for Vehicles
(11.8%), Wind (10.7%), Geothermal (8.7%) and Waste Water Treatment (7.4%) ‐ together account for
60% of total market value.
The environmental goods and services (EGS) sector has traditionally included solutions for problems
such as air, noise and marine pollution, land and water contamination, as well as activities such as
environmental analysis and consultancy and waste management and recycling. However more
recently, the definition of this sector has widened.
Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends.
However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive their
energy from the sun.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active
depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar
techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into