The main contents of chapter 5 consist of the following: Factors influencing the quality of estimates; estimating guidelines for times, costs, and resources; top-down versus bottom-up estimating; methods for estimating project times and costs; level of detail; types of costs; refining estimates; creating a database for estimating.
In recent years, the affordability of weapon systems has become increasingly important to policymakers in the Department of Defense and U.S. Congress. Aerospace industry analysts and some government officials have asserted that government cost estimates are based on outdated methods that do not account for the latest technological innovations. The authors of this report present the results of a RAND research study to update the methods for estimating military jet engine costs and development time.
Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the
use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the
production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the
animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows
have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).
This subject focuses on management accounting for cost and control purposes in an organisational context. Emphasises the use of quantitative techniques and computer software including spreadsheets and presentation graphics.
Mechatronics, the synergistic blend of mechanics, electronics, and computer science, has
evolved over the past twenty-five years, leading to a novel stage of engineering design. By
integrating the best design practices with the most advanced technologies, mechatronics aims
at realizing highquality products, guaranteeing, at the same time, a substantial reduction of
time and costs of manufacturing.
In any FTTX deployment, the goal of network planners is to build the most
flexible and reliable system possible in the least amount of time and at the
lowest possible cost. ADC has been an industry leader in the development
of cost-effective plug-and-play architectures that provide both time and cost
savings while increasing the flexibility of the network. This paper will discuss the
advantages of hardened connectors and drop cables using Multi-port Service
Terminals (MSTs) for accelerated FTTX deployment and rapid service turn-up.
It was just a few decades ago, in the 1950s, that modern project management was first seen as an
individual subject within the area of economic sciences. Centuries back, so-called “projects” were finished
successfully, e.g. the building of the aqueducts in Roman times or the construction of the Great Wall in
China, but these projects were managed more on an ad-hoc basis mostly using informal techniques and
To guarantee our attractiveness at the market and to offer our customers the
maximal use, the factors quality, time and costs, have priority in the whole enterprise.
In the sense of our collective and social responsibility security, health and
environmental protection as well as right conformity represent substantial
constituents of our managerial policy and are merged in the functions and
responsibility of our management.
The project baseline, which is the focus of Chapter 7, arguably falls into place when
planning is complete and the team members have agreed all the scheduled dates. At
this juncture, values are stored, and these include the agreed tasks; the scheduled
start and finish dates for the tasks; team members who will be responsible for
scheduled tasks; and the budgeted cost. All that is done cognisant of performance,
cost, time and scope (PCTS) of the project.
When considering supply side factors, we study characteristics of the financial sector that would
influence the speed of adoption of mutual funds. We examine the effect of bank concentration,
restrictions placed on banks to enter the securities business, the number of distribution channels available
for funds, the presence of an explicit deposit insurance system for banks, and the time and cost to set up a
new fund. We find that nations that restrict banks from entering the securities business have smaller
equity and bond fund sectors. In addition, countries with a...
The ability of PHI to reduce demand pressures on the public system has nonetheless proven to be
constrained. Increases in the population covered by PHI in Australia and Ireland have not resulted in
unambiguous signs of decline in the level of waiting (Colombo and Tapay, 2003 and 2004b). PHI
membership has not only shifted demand across public and private hospitals but has also increased overall
demand, thereby limiting the impact on waiting times.
The research in this paper seeks ways for manufacturing companies to accomplish projects in real time
with less cost. This paper describes a new model using critical success factors of implementing
projects in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The factors in the conceptual model were
identified in past studies and are validated from interviews with 20 project managers in the electronics
industry in Iran. Several prior researches have suggested critical success factors for reducing time and
cost in the development of a new product. These factors are...
The project was characterised by
high uncertainty, since neither cost nor time could be accurately estimated. Times of
completion were based on probabilities: optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely. This
led to what has come to be known as the programme evaluation review technique
(PERT). Later a new methodology known as project planning and scheduling (PPS)
was introduced in the private sector. PPS required realistic estimates of cost and
time, and was considered more definitive than PERT.
The nontraditional distributor as a source of RH/FP information is being replicated in Northern
Nigeria, a region that has proven particularly reluctant to use modern contraceptive methods. Local women can be
hard to reach because of the tradition of Purdah, which keeps them in the home unless escorted by a male relative.
But traditional beauticians (Mai Lalle) and hair stylists (Mai Kitso) have access to both young married and
unmarried women. Pathfinder plans to train these women to counsel their clients on RH/FP issues, including
healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies.
The validity of a specific method should be demonstrated in laboratory experiments using
samples or standards that are similar to unknown samples analyzed routinely. The
preparation and execution should follow a validation protocol, preferably written in a stepby-
step instruction format. This proposed procedure assumes that the instrument has been
selected and the method has been developed.
The residence time that contaminants and nutrients remain in lichen tissue differs among elements (Pucket
1985). Macronutrients, such as nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, magnesium and calcium are comparatively
mobile and easily leached and therefore measurable changes in tissue concentrations can occur over weeks
or months with seasonal changes in deposition (Boongaprob et al. 1989). In one study, mobile elements
reached the same levels in transplants as the indigenous lichens within four to six months (Palomäki et al.
There have been some attempts to explain theoretically the behavior of the stock return volatility.
Veronesi (1999) constructs a model with regime shifts in the endowments in which investors will-
ingness to hedge against their own uncertainty on the true regime generates overreaction to good
news in bad times and volatility clustering. In contrast to that paper, I assume that the exogenous
state variables are not subject to regimes, neither do they exhibit mean-reversion.
Whether blameworthy or not, the use of the cloak of social responsibility, and the nonsense
spoken in its name by influential and prestigious businessmen, does clearly harm the
foundations of a free society. I have been impressed time and again by the schizophrenic
character of many businessmen. They are capable of being extremely far-sighted and clear-
headed in matters that are internal to their businesses. They are incredibly short-sighted and
muddle-headed in matters that are outside their businesses but affect the possible survival of
business in general.
Can these two images be reconciled? How to do we blend Zen and
the underlying wisdom it represents with project management and its
quest for satisfying people and organizations with valuable outcomes
within time and cost constraints?
Blending Zen and project management enables us to more effec-
tively manage projects to get the results we want, when we want them,
for the price we expect to pay. This is the outer work—perfecting the
form and perfecting its results.
This report presents a methodology for calculating such impacts. To illustrate the
magnitude of potential impacts, two alternative scenarios are outlined for long-
term US public transportation investment; a “base case” scenario that maintains
long-term public transportation ridership trends, and a “higher transit investment”
scenario that adds investment each year over the 2010-2030 period. The analysis
estimates how travel times and costs, including effects of changes in congestion
levels and mode switching, differs among the scenarios.