One of the main advantages of this technique is that it can produce the scaffold with main
structural feature suitable for growth of the cell and subsequent tissue organization (Li &
Tuan, 2009; Liang et al., 2007; Leong et al., 2008). It can produce the ultra fine fibers with
special orientation, high aspect ratio, high surface area, and having control over pore
Current clinical technologies, especially donor transplants and artificial organs, have
been excellent life-saving and life-extending therapies to treat patients who need
to reconstitute diseased or devastated organs or tissues as a result of an accident,
trauma, and cancer, or to correct congenital structural anomalies. For long, most
scientists and clinicians believed that damaged or lost tissues could only be replaced
by organ transplantation or with totally artificial parts.
The third edition of Principles of Tissue Engineering attempts to incorporate the latest advances in the biology and design of tissues and organs and simultaneously to connect the basic sciences — including new discoveries in the field of stem cells — with the potential application of tissue engineering to diseases affecting specific organ systems.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 69. Tissue Engineering
Tissue Engineering: Introduction The origins of tissue engineering date to the sixteenth century when complex skin flaps were used to replace the nose. Modern tissue engineering combines the disciplines of materials sciences and life sciences to replace a diseased or damaged organ with a living, functional substitute.
The most common tissue engineering approach combines cells and matrices to produce a living structure (Fig. 69-1).
A scaffold provides a three-dimensional framework to support the tissue or organ-specific cells. The scaffold not only provides mechanical support, but it must also supply critical nutrients and transport metabolites to and from the developing tissue. Important scaffold properties vary depending on the tissue but typically include specific biomechanical properties, porosity, biocompatibility, and appropriate surface characteristics for cell adhesion and differentiation.
Scaffolds can be natural materials or synthetic polymers and are typically biodegradable.
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ made up of adipocytes, various stro-mal cells, resident and infiltrating immune cells, and an extensive endo-thelial network. Adipose secretory products, collectively referred to as
adipokines, have been identified as contributors to the negative conse-quences of adipose tissue expansion that include cardiovascular disease,
diabetes and cancer.
People of four generations ago lived at the turn of the 20th Century, before the invention
and widespread use in agriculture and industry of thousands of synthetic chemicals. Those of
us living in the early 21st Century inhabit a world where some of these substances – which
were introduced as far back as the 1920s and employed more and more in the 1940s and '50s
– have been around for decades. Now they are everywhere . . . including in the tissues of every
human being on Earth.
This chapter list the steps involved in preparing animal tissue for microscopic viewing; list several structural and functional characteristics of epithelial tissue; name, classify, and describe the various types of epithelia, and indicate their chief function(s) and location(s).
Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues, but its amount in particular organs varies. For example, skin consists primarily of connective tissue, while the brain contains very little. This chapter provides knowledge of connective tissue, indicate common characteristics of connective tissue, and list and describe its structural elements.
Lecture Human anatomy and physiology - Chapter 6: Bones and skeletal tissues (part a). When you finish this chapter, you should: Describe the functional properties of the three types of cartilage tissue, locate the major cartilages of the adult skeleton, explain how cartilage grows, name the major regions of the skeleton and describe their relative functions, compare and contrast the four bone classes and provide examples of each class,...
Chapter 6: Bones and skeletal tissues (part b) provides knowledge of bone development, bone homeostasis, homeostatic imbalances of bone and developmental aspects of bones. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification, describe the process of long bone growth that occurs at the epiphyseal plates,...and other contents.
Chapter 9 - Muscles and muscle tissue (part a) provides knowledge of muscle tissues and skeletal muscle. The following will be discussed in this chapter: Types of muscle tissue, special characteristics of muscle tissue, muscle functions, gross anatomy of a skeletal muscle, microscopic anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber, sliding filament model of contraction, physiology of skeletal muscle fibers,...
Vascular dysfunction may also reduce oxygen delivery to gingival tissue. Pocket oxygen tension was reported to be significantly
lower in smokers than non-smokers providing support for the negative effects of smoking
on vascular system (Hanioka et al. 2000). Evidence from both human and experimental
studies suggests that smoking has a long-term chronic effect, and its effect is not simply a
Biotechnology is the scientific field of studying and applying the most efficient methods and techniques to get useful end-products for the human society by using viable micro-organisms, cells, and tissues of plants or animals, or even certain functional components of their organisms, that are grown in fully controlled conditions to maximize their specific metabolism inside fully automatic bioreactors.
It is my privilege to contribute the foreword for this unique volume entitled: “Plant
Tissue Culture Engineering,” edited by S. Dutta Gupta and Y. Ibaraki. While there have
been a number of volumes published regarding the basic methods and applications of
plant tissue and cell culture technologies, and even considerable attention provided to
bioreactor design, relatively little attention has been afforded to the engineering
principles that have emerged as critical contributions to the commercial applications of
Every career in health care begins with learning the vast and challenging language of medical terminology.
Without adequate learning and teaching resources, it can be an overwhelming challenge for
students and faculty. This new edition of Medical Terminology: An Illustrated Guide meets that challenge
with a clear organizational scheme, full-color illustrations with a strong clinical focus, a wide array of
effective pedagogical features, a variety of activities, and useful ancillaries to make teaching and learning more
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes.
The human body is composed of structures organized in a hierarchical fashion: from
biomolecules assembled into polymers, to multimeric assemblies such as cellular organelles,
to individual cells, to tissues, to organ systems working together in health and
disease- each dominated by a characteristic length scale. Decades of science and engineering
are now converging to provide tools that enable the orderly manipulation of biological
systems at previously inaccessible, though critically important, length scales (...
This is a dangerous combination. The persistence and mobility of POPs means that they
are literally everywhere in the world, even in the Arctic,Antarctica, and remote Pacific islands.
Their attraction to fatty tissue, known as "bioaccumulation", means that even though a
poison is first dispersed widely and thinly it gradually starts to concentrate as organisms
consume other organisms as they move up the food chain.