Tissues of plants

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  • Biotechnology is the scientific field of studying and applying the most efficient methods and techniques to get useful end-products for the human society by using viable micro-organisms, cells, and tissues of plants or animals, or even certain functional components of their organisms, that are grown in fully controlled conditions to maximize their specific metabolism inside fully automatic bioreactors.

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  • In the mid-1990s plant biotechnology burst onto the scene in world agriculture, beginning a second ‘green revolution’ and precipitating one of the great public debates of our time. Approximately a decade later, this book describes the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on world agriculture, recent advances in the technology and the areas of research from which the next generation of GM crops is likely to emerge, as well as addresses the issues of safety and regulation that have dogged the technology, particularly in Europe.

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  • It is my privilege to contribute the foreword for this unique volume entitled: “Plant Tissue Culture Engineering,” edited by S. Dutta Gupta and Y. Ibaraki. While there have been a number of volumes published regarding the basic methods and applications of plant tissue and cell culture technologies, and even considerable attention provided to bioreactor design, relatively little attention has been afforded to the engineering principles that have emerged as critical contributions to the commercial applications of plant biotechnologies.

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  • The purpose of this book is to provide the advances in plant in vitro culture as related to perennial fruit crops and medicinal plants. Basic principles and new techniques, now available, are presented in detail. The book will be of use to researchers, teachers in biotechnology and for individuals interested to the commercial application of plant in vitro culture.

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  • IN NATURAL HABITATS, plants are surrounded by an enormous number of potential enemies. Nearly all ecosystems contain a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, mites, insects, mammals, and other herbivorous animals. By their nature, plants cannot avoid these herbivores and pathogens simply by moving away; they must protect themselves in other ways. The cuticle (a waxy outer layer) and the periderm (secondary protective tissue), besides retarding water loss, provide barriers to bacterial and fungal entry.

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  • An applied field of biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology) It is the products and exploitation from other fundamental sciences.Traditional Biotechnology Traditional biotechnology refers to a number of ancient ways of using living organisms to make new products or modify existing ones. In its broadest definition, traditional biotechnology can be traced back to human's transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer.

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  • THE EXTENT AND TIMING OF PLANT GROWTH are controlled by the coordinated actions of positive and negative regulators. Some of the most obvious examples of regulated nongrowth are seed and bud dormancy, adaptive features that delay growth until environmental conditions are favorable. For many years, plant physiologists suspected that the phenomena of seed and bud dormancy were caused by inhibitory compounds, and they attempted to extract and isolate such compounds from a variety of plant tissues, especially dormant buds.

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  • Polymerase Chain Reaction is widely held as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century in molecular biology. Small amounts of the genetic material can now be amplified to be able to a identify, manipulate DNA, detect infectious organisms, including the viruses that cause AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, detect genetic variations, including mutations, in human genes and numerous other tasks.

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  • Glofish is the first transgenic animal approved to be consumed by human in the USA  The insertion of different constructs of GFP into the fish genomes to give different green colors.The idea for recombinant DNA was first proposed by Peter Lobban, a graduate student of Prof. Dale Kaiser in the Biochemistry Department at Stanford University Medical School. The first publications describing the successful production and intracellular replication of recombinant DNA appeared in 1972 and 1973.

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  • A useful aspect of freshwater sponge biology, particularly for the purposes of an undergraduate lab module, is the fact that they enter diapause as small gemmules. Gemmules are overwintering balls that are produced in the late summer/early fall by the adult sponge. They are the size of the period at the end of this sentence. Adult tissue disintegrates around the gemmule during the winter, and a new sponge emerges from the gemmules in the spring. The newly developing sponge exits the gemmule from a micropyle, and then quickly spreads around the gemmule. In a...

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  • Aspartic proteinases of the A1 family are widely distributed among plant species and have been purified from a variety of tissues. They are most active at acidic pH, are specifically inhibited by pepstatin A and contain two aspartic residues indispensible for catalytic activity. The three-dimensional structure of two plant aspartic proteinases has been deter-mined, sharing significant structural similarity with other known structures of mammalian aspartic proteinases.

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  • Since the publication of this book, in 1983, several new and exciting developments have taken place in the field of Plant Tissue Culture, and it now forms a major component of what is popularly called Plant Biotechnology. Many of the important crop plants which were then regarded as recalcitrant are now amenable to regeneration from cultured protoplasts, cells, and calli, enabling subjection of these crops to improvement by biotechnological methods of cell manipulation.

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  • THE VEGETATIVE PHASE OF DEVELOPMENT begins with embryogenesis, but development continues throughout the life of a plant. Plant developmental biologists are concerned with questions such as, How does a zygote give rise to an embryo, an embryo to a seedling? How do new plant structures arise from preexisting structures? Organs are generated by cell division and expansion, but they are also composed of tissues in which groups of cells have acquired specialized functions, and these tissues are arranged in specific patterns.

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  • SURVIVAL ON LAND POSES SOME SERIOUS CHALLENGES to terrestrial plants, foremost of which is the need to acquire and retain water. In response to these environmental pressures, plants evolved roots and leaves. Roots anchor the plant and absorb water and nutrients; leaves absorb light and exchange gases. As plants increased in size, the roots and leaves became increasingly separated from each other in space. Thus, systems evolved for long-distance transport that allowed the shoot and the root to efficiently exchange products of absorption and assimilation.

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  • SPB2 2/27/2003 4:06 PM Page 35 2 Plant tissue culture Introduction Most methods of plant transformation applied to GM crops require that a whole plant is regenerated from isolated plant cells or tissue which have been genetically transformed. This regeneration is conducted in vitro so that the environment and growth medium can be manipulated to ensure a high frequency of regeneration. In addition to a high frequency of regeneration, the regenerable cells must be accessible to gene transfer by whatever technique is chosen (gene transfer methods are described in Chapter 3).

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  • The clinical microbiology laboratory is often a sentinel for the detection of drug resistant strains of microorganisms. Standardized protocols require continual scrutiny to detect emerging phenotypic resistance patterns. The timely notification of clinicians with susceptibility results can initiate the alteration of antimicrobial chemotherapy and improve patient care. It is vital that microbiology laboratories stay current with standard and emerging methods and have a solid understanding of their function in the war on infectious diseases. ...

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  • THE FORM AND FUNCTION of multicellular organism would not be possible without efficient communication among cells, tissues, and organs. In higher plants, regulation and coordination of metabolism, growth, and morphogenesis often depend on chemical signals from one part of the plant to another. This idea originated in the nineteenth century with the German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832–1897). Sachs proposed that chemical messengers are responsible for the formation and growth of different plant organs.

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  • It is very important to make the specific difference between biotechnology as a distinct science of getting valuable products from molecules, cells, or tissues of viable organisms, and any other applications of bioprocesses that are based on using the whole living plants or animals in different fields of human activities such as bioremediation, environmental protection, organic agriculture, or industrial exploitation of natural resources.

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  • The pollutants contained in the wash water can include sand, sewage waste, plant materials, oil grease, diesel, dead fish, paper products, soap products and petroleum products. Samples analyzed from 2007-2008 show multiple instances of Total Coliform above 1,600,000 MPN/100ml, Fecal Coliform above 18,755 MPN/100ml, and Enterococcus above 24,196 MPN/100ml, all of which are above the action level determined by the City of Oceanside.

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  • Over the last few years leaded petrols have been phased out of use. However this has resulted in higher levels of benzene and other aromatics in the substitute unleaded petrol. Benzene breaks down quickly in the environment and is not stored in the tissues of plants or animals. However, it is still hazardous to humans at high levels as it can cause several diseases of the blood including leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells). Benzene monitoring programmes were started in New Zealand in 1994 and are continuing because the levels in some locations were found...

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