Total evidence

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  • Biologists study living things, but what do philosophers of biology study? A cynic might say “their own navels,” but I am no cynic. A better answer is that philosophers of biology, and philosophers of science generally, study science. Ours is a second-order, not a first-order, subject. In this respect, philosophy of science is similar to history and sociology of science. A difference may be found in the fact that historians and sociologists study science as it is, whereas philosophers of science study science as it ought to be.

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  • The last two decades have witnessed an extensive growth in foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to developing countries. This has been accompanied by an increase in competition amongst the developing countries to attract FDI, resulting in a rise in investment incentives offered by the host governments and removal of restrictions on operations of foreign firms in their countries. This has also led to an ever-increasing number of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and regional agreements on...

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  • To evaluate the main characteristics and performances of alternative financing mechanisms a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) was conducted. The MCA is a decision making tool used to reach consensus about the characteristics and performances of different policy instruments, or alternatives. In the MCA each stakeholder participating in the evaluation process enters their judgment (or score), and contributes to a jointly reached conclusion about a policy instrument or alternative. In the FORVALUE study, the MCA was conducted for 11 cases of innovative (or alternative) financing mechanisms.

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  • The Central Bank today publishes statistics for Q1 2012 on investment funds (IFs) resident in Ireland. Irish resident IFs expanded strongly in Q1 2012, driven by performing global equity markets and apparent expanding investor confidence evident in new subscriptions. When reclassifications are excluded, IFs, measured by total shares/units in issue, increased in value to €819.8 billion at end Q1 2012, up from €768.7 billion at end Q4 2011. This increase is accounted for by revaluations of €34.9 billion and positive net transactions of €16.2 billion. ...

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  • For some small businesses, the security of their information, systems, and networks might not be a high priority, but for their customers, employees, and trading partners it is very important. The term Small Enterprise (or Small Organization) is sometimes used for this same category of business or organization. A small enterprise/organization may also be a nonprofit organization. The size of a small business varies by type of business, but typically is a business or organization with up to 500 employees.

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  • While total platform security is the domain of AlienVault, Lookout Mobile focuses on the weakest link in most communication networks, the individual smartphone or iPad. Mobile phone security has taken such a high priority lately, that the US State Department now advises American diplomats and corporate executives to remove the batteries from their smartphones before entering areas where they’re likely to be vulnerable to cyber attack.

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  • Angina is the characteristic pain of IHD. It is caused by atherosclerosis leading to stenosis (partial occlusion) of one or more coronary arteries. Patients with chronic stable angina have an average annual mortality of 2 percent or less. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the total occlusion of a major coronary artery with a complete lack of oxygen and nutrients leading to cardiac muscle necrosis. AMI is usually diagnosed by changes in the electrocardiogram; by elevated serum enzymes, such as creatine phosphokinase and troponin T or I; and by pain similar to that of angina.

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  • Instrumental variables techniques are required to solve the possible endogeneity of household consumption. The most difficult task is to find a valid instrument for the regression above. The literature on demand systems typically uses income to instrument consumption. If preferences are separable between consumption and leisure, total consumption but not income is relevant to decide on the good shares. However, there are several reasons why household income might not be a valid instrument.

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  • A cascade of events (signal-transduction), mainly seen in rat cardiac myocytes and renal cells, is thought to occur after ouabain interaction with a minor fraction of Na + /K + -ATPase. Ahigher intracellularNa + concentration followed sodium pump inhibition by ouabain with a subsequent gradual increase or oscillations in intracellular Ca 2+ con-centration. Whether this increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration is part of the cascade, a result of the cascadeor a totally independent phenomenon are conflicting interpre-tations that are discussed. ...

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  • One-electron oxidation of six different c-type lysozymes from hen egg white, turkey egg white, human milk, horse milk, camel stomach and tortoise was studied by gamma-and pulse-radiolysis.In the first step, one tryptophan side chain is oxidized to indolyl free radical, which is produced quantitatively.As shown already, the indolyl radical subse-quently oxidizes a tyrosine side chain to the phenoxy radical in an intramolecular reaction.However this reaction is not total and its stoichiometry depends on the protein.

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  • We value stock options based on the Black-Scholes (1973) formula for valuing European call options, as modified by Merton (1973). 5 To construct a measure of the total stock option holdings of each CEO at a given point in time, we use proxy data on stock option grants, gains from exercising stock options, and the total number of stock options held by the CEO. Annual proxies contain information on options granted during the preceding fiscal year, including the number, duration, and exercise price of the options.

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  • The results from the library database searches (13 158 hits), the Internet search and key informant surveys were reduced to a review of 982 reports of which 500 were selected for critical appraisal. In total 158 articles, representing 147 pro- grammes, were included for further analysis. The majority of reports were included based on high appraisal scores in programme development and evalua- tion with limited numbers eligible based on scores in other categories of appraisal.

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  • The Rome ‘Declaration on Harmonisation’ of February 2003, states that: 4 ‘We in the donor community have been concerned with the growing evidence that, over time, the totality and wide variety of donor requirements for preparing, delivering and monitoring development assistance are generating unproductive transaction costs for, and drawing down the limited capacities of, partner countries’ and that ‘donor practices do not always fit well with national development priorities’. The EC will therefore play its part in promoting harmonisation of policies and practices.

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  • The Central Bank today publishes statistics for Q3 2012 on investment funds (IFs) resident in Ireland. IFs, measured by total shares/units in issue, increased by 4.4 per cent to €892 billion by end-Q3 2012, driven by revaluations of €24.3 billion and net new subscriptions of €13.5 billion. Growth was concentrated in equity and bond funds, at 5.3 and 4.5 per cent respectively, though was also evident in all fund types. During the same period, European units/shares in issue...

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  • Several filers reported suspected Ponzi schemes where subjects gathered client funds for investment in commercial real estate or real estate securities without actually purchasing the underlying assets. A hedge fund claimed to invest millions in CMBS and credit derivatives, but the filer found no evidence of CMBS ownership. The hedge fund primarily bought long-term certificates of deposit earning minimal interest, which were inconsistent with the fund’s investment strategy. In addition, the filer noted many small client deposits, consistent with a Ponzi scheme.

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  • Analysis was conducted on nutrients or nutrient groups for which numeric data were provided in at least 10 of the 137 crop studies identified by the review.

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  • An estimated 1.5 million deaths occur annually as a result of household air pollution from SFU mainly for cooking as well as winter season heating. The total disease burden, including morbidity, is estimated at 36 million DALYs (WHO 2007). 3 These deaths and DALYs arise mainly from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, and to a lesser extent lung cancer. There is also moderate evidence of increased risk of asthma, cataracts and tuberculosis (Desai et al, 2004; Smith et al, 2004).

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  • There has been a case report of exaggerated pigmented granulomatous reaction to the artificial joint implant in a 72-year-old man who had undergone bilateral total hip arthroplasty, in whom, aspirate from the inguinal region was misinterpreted as metastatic melanoma from an unknown primary. Microscopically, the smears of this patient showed both intracellular and extracellular black pigment with obscured cytomorphology; although, appreciable cells were reported to be pleomorphic with prominent nucleoli. The patient had no evidence of primary cutaneous melanoma.

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  • Nongovernmental organizations, though, reach more borrowers in total. The third column shows that nongovernmental organizations can claim about one-half of the 18 million customers in this data set, with banks claiming one-quarter. Donors at large aid agencies have pushed hard to encourage the commercialization of microfinance, but the evidence here suggests that nonprofit microfinance agencies still matter in a big way.

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  • Recent studies have tested for particulate absorption through sampling leaves and examining the product of washing from broadleaved trees (plane, lime, elm, cherry and ash). Beckett et al. (2000b) sampled from five urban polluted sites within the South East of England2 , which were located in close proximity to road traffic. Using foliage density estimates, the total insoluble particle load per tree was found to vary between 41 and 2936 grams.

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