Toxic substances

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  • There is currently no independent authoritative statement on the nature and importance of differences in content of nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances (nutrients and other substances) in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs. This systematic review of the available published literature was designed to seek to determine the size and relevance to health of any differences in content of nutrients and other substances in organically and conventionally produced crops and livestock products.

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  • The complexity of children’s environmental health (CEH) issues is compounded by the combination of legacy environmental issues, such as water quality and sanitation service delivery, with modern challenges such as transboundary contamination by persistent toxic substances, ozone depletion and hence ultraviolet and ionising radiation, global climate change, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals).

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  • The first edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1989) was written to bridge the gap between toxicology and chemistry. It defined toxicological chemistry as the science that deals with the chemical nature and reactions of toxic substances, their origins and uses, and the chemical aspects of their exposure, transformation, and elimination by biological systems. It emphasized the chemical formulas, structures, and reactions of toxic substances. The second edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1992) was significantly enlarged and increased in scope compared to the first edition.

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  • Human activities have a large and important impact on the environment. Naturally occurring elements or compounds are often concentrated and redistributed in the environment through industrial processes, power production, and consumer activity. For example, lead, which is found in naturally occurring mineral deposits, has become a major pollutant through its use in batteries, paints, and gasoline additives.

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  • Through the studies, we can deduce that most of the industrial discharge carries toxic substances. Due to the presence of high amount of toxic, carcinogen, and teratogen of metals, researchers are highly concerned with its effect on the environment and health of mankind. Rigorous investigations are currently being carried out to study the consequences of the contamination on the surface water, groundwater, and surface land due to industrial discharge.

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  • Introduction: The chemical warfare agents well known count only about 30 kinds of compounds, such as sarin, soman, tabun, VX, mustard gas, lewisite and others. When unknown toxic substances should be analyzed upon the occurrence of chemical terrorism, much more kinds of poisons and related compounds become the objects of analysis. In the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)a, 120 thousand compoundsb, including typical chemical warfare agents, their related compounds, precursors and decomposition products, are being listed to be controlled.

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  • There is a commonly held myth in our society that anything that is “natural” is good, wholesome, and healthful, whereas anything that is “synthetic” is bad, toxic, and harmful. The mere mention of the word chemical is enough to strike terror into the heart of any food faddist. This attitude is, at best, naïve and, at worst, dangerous.

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  • Environmental Toxicology: The study of the nature, properties, effects and detection of toxic substances in the environment and in any environmentally exposed species, including humans. Motivation: Why learn about the environment and man’s relationship to the environment?

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  • Within the overall transport process, attenuation processes may cause movement of the chemical to differ from that of the bulk flowing groundwater, for example dispersion, sorption and chemical or biological degradation of the chemical. Such attenuation processes potentially act to mitigate the impact of chemicals and are a function of both the specific chemical and geologic domain. Indeed, attenuation may vary significantly between individual chemicals and within different geological settings.

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  • The burning of fossil fuels puts into the atmosphere carbon dioxide, which is causing gradual global warming. This 'greenhouse effect' may by early next century have increased average global temperatures enough to shift agricultural production areas, raise sea levels to flood coastal cities, and disrupt national economies.

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  • Kanchha’s father immediately found a job in a brick kiln factory not very far from the city. These kilns produce highly concentrated amounts of fine particulate matter, which interact with other industrial and vehicle fumes over Kathmandu. Brick kilns use coal as their main fuel source, and this contributes to the air pollution in Kathmandu by pumping considerable quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other toxic substances into the atmosphere. After a few months, Kanchha’s father started to cough.

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  • The committee is grateful for the contribution of participants at its three public meetings. The presentations and discussions at these meeting were valuable in informing the committee about relevant research findings, issues of interest in the research community, the perspectives of advocacy organizations, and the concerns of individuals with breast cancer and their families. The agendas for these meetings appear in Appendix A.

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  • Paper consumption can represent significant costs associated with the communications and marketing activities of a planned event. It is often considered a necessary cost of doing business. Yet, when looking at a standard piece of paper, many of us do not consider the true cost of producing it. Conventional paper uses chemicals that produce, along with the paper itself, harsh toxic substances and the living trees used to make the paper provide priceless ecological services.

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  • Many measures can indeed be taken almost immediately to reduce this environmental disease burden. Just a few examples include the promotion of safe household water storage and better hygiene measures, the use of cleaner fuels and safer, more judicious use and management of toxic substances in the home and workplace. At the same time, actions by sectors such as energy, transport, agriculture, and industry are urgently required, in cooperation with the health sector, to address the root environmental causes of ill health. There is good news in this report, however.

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  • While many studies have focused on estimating a relationship between pollution and health, they have largely neglected to consider that pollution exposure is endogenously determined if individuals make choices to maximize their well-being. People with high preferences for clean air may choose to live in areas with better air quality. People can respond to a wide range of readily available information on pollution levels by adjusting their exposure. Failing to appropriately account for such actions can yield misleading estimates of the causal effect of pollution on health. ...

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  • With this label the use of agro-chemicals is regulated and controlled and the residues on the products have to be below a specific level that is safe for con- sumers. The second label is “Pesticide-Safe Vegetable” which is assigned to retailers of agricul- tural products who conduct tests for toxic substances before selling the products. These products are from production systems using agro-chemicals, but the residues have to be within the defined levels.

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  • The WHO has estimated that environmental exposures contribute to 19% of cancer incidence worldwide. 6 Additionally, a WHO Global Health Risks report looked at five environmental exposures, (unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, urban outdoor air pollution, indoor smoke from solid fuels, lead exposure and climate change), and estimated they account for nearly 10% of deaths and disease burden globally and around one quarter of deaths and disease burden in children under the age of five.

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  • Congress has enacted laws requiring individuals and facilities to take measures to protect environmental quality and public health by limiting potentially harmful emissions and discharges, and remediating damage. Enforcement of federal pollution control laws in the United States occurs within a highly diverse, complex, and dynamic statutory framework and organizational setting. Multiple statutes address a number of environmental pollution issues, such as those associated with air emissions, water discharges, hazardous wastes, and toxic substances in commerce.

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  • The Baltic Sea is a unique basin, being productive with intensive fishing potential and has therefore been the object of many studies. It is a brackish, nontidal, relatively shallow and semi-enclosed sea. The Baltic is located at a high latitude, hence one of its characteristic features is ice. Another unique geographical pattern are the archipelagos located off the coast of Stockholm which consist of more than 25 000 islands. The relative ionic concentration of toxic substances e.g. chemical elements is generally higher in the low-saline Baltic Sea than compared to the North Sea....

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  • Population groups that are potentially more vulnerable than others to indoor air pollution are children, pregnant women, elderly people, and people suffering from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Depending on their age, children may be more vulnerable than adults to certain toxic substances, like lead and tobacco smoke. Even at low levels, air pollutants may disrupt the development of their lungs, cause cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases, and make asthma worse.

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