Sales of herbal products have increased dramatically over the past five years. Unfortunately, the
knowledge base devoted to the adverse effects of these products has not grown in proportion to their
increased usage. Data of questionable accuracy, often designed to sell products rather than to provide
objective information, can be found in the print and electronic media, most notably on the Internet.
Even in medical journals, misleading information about the beneficial and adverse effects of herbs can
The first edition of
(1989) was written to bridge the gap between
toxicology and chemistry. It defined toxicological chemistry as the science that deals with the
chemical nature and reactions of toxic substances, their origins and uses, and the chemical aspects
of their exposure, transformation, and elimination by biological systems. It emphasized the chemical
formulas, structures, and reactions of toxic substances. The second edition of
(1992) was significantly enlarged and increased in scope compared to the first edition.
This book is written with the objective of providing fundamental knowledge
concerning the biological and health effects of environmental pollutants on
living systems. The book emphasizes the chemical and biological characteristics
of major pollutants found in our environment and their impacts on the health
of living organisms, including not only humans and animals but also plants.
How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions.
Preparations derived from Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegl. mycelium are worldwide used as dietary supplements
containing compounds active as immune system enhancers, demonstrating chemopreventive and
anticancer activity. L. edodes mycelium enriched with organic forms of selenium like selenized yeast possess
putative, higher cancer preventive properties. The objective of this study was to test the effect of
enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water and alcohol
extracts from mycelium of L. edodes (Berk.).
Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientists present what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to traditional animal toxicological assessment and provide potentially new initiatives.
Why do some contaminants remain in soils indefinitely? How much of a threat do they pose to human health or the environment? The need for effective and economic site decontamination arises daily. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate, and Mitigation discusses why soils remain contaminated, focusing on the development of the factors, properties, characteristics, and parameters of soils and individual contaminants.
How drugs act and interact, how they enter the body, what happens to them inside the body, how they are eliminated from it; the effects of genetics, age, and disease on drug action — these topics are important for, although they will generally not be in the front of the conscious mind of the prescriber, an understanding of them will enhance rational decision taking. Knowledge of the requirements for success and the explanations for failure and for adverse events will enable the doctor to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks of drug therapy. Pharmacodynamics.
The treatment of contaminated land to eliminate or reduce the presence of
pollutants in the contaminated site has received (and will continue to receive)
considerable attention from the practicing profession. Extensive research and development
are still underway in respect to the delivery of more effective (and economic)
means for site decontamination.
Since the Second World War, and especially since the publication of Rachel Carson’s
in 1962, there has been growing concern about contamination of the
environment by “man-made” chemicals. These chemicals may be present in industrial
and municipal effluents, in consumer or commercial products, in mine tailings,
in petroleum products, and in gaseous emissions. Some chemicals such as pesticides
may be specifically designed to kill biota present in natural or agricultural ecosystems.
They may be organic, inorganic, metallic, or radioactive in nature.
The Human Developmental Toxicants Database (HumDevTox) is a chemical structure–chemical
property–biological activity database for 50 known agents that adversely affect human development
as a result of exposure prior to conception or during prenatal and postnatal development. The
developmental effects elicited include growth retardation, death, structural abnormality, and functional
Environmental Toxicology: The study of the nature, properties, effects and detection of toxic substances in the environment and in any environmentally exposed species, including humans. Motivation: Why learn about the environment and man’s relationship to the environment?
This document presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health
from health risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air.
The guidelines are based on a comprehensive review and evaluation of the accu-
mulated scientific evidence by a multidisciplinary group of experts studying the
toxic properties and health effects of these pollutants.
Under the Clean Air Act, particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air
pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are
to be established on the basis of the scientific evidence on risks to human
health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and
state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting
a major multiyear research effort to improve scientific understanding of
airborne PM and its effects on human health.
Modern urban Air Pollution
"summer" (photochemical) smog:
NO, NO2, CxHy, UV-rad: == O3
(reactions worked out on blackboard)
Winter (cold weather) smog:
fine or ultra-fine particles == health effects
Mixture is different in different cities
Traffic important source
Toxicological mechanism still unknown
Health effects even at low concentrations
(from 40 mg/m3?)
Second, information should be thought of as better if it reduces the uncertainty
surrounding some future cost or benefit. For instance, future liabilities are inherently
uncertain. Information that can narrow the variance on estimates of those uncertain liabilities
should be considered better information. Reduced variance is particularly valuable when
decision-makers are risk-averse, since a reduction in variance alone can lead to different
decisions when there is risk aversion.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Project summary: a critical synopsis of mechanisms of action of low-dose xenobiotics in mammalian organisms as a basis for assessing aggregated effects of chemical mixtures and identifying “new” toxicological end points
Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the
target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the
body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and
organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery
systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.