Xem 1-16 trên 16 kết quả Toxicological methods
  • Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientists present what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to traditional animal toxicological assessment and provide potentially new initiatives.

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  • RNA turnover and processing have now been demonstrated to be important steps that directly affect protein synthesis and the cell’s ability to survive in nature. However, the analysis of mRNA decay and polyadenylation in Escherichia coli has long been considered technically difficult. The development over the past 15 years of methods for the isolation and characterization of both mRNA and polyadenylated species has made the study of these important pathways of RNA metabolism more straightforward (Arraiano et al., 1988; O’Hara et al., 1995; Mohanty and Kushner, 1999)....

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  • This volume covers the technologies that are applied to the treatment and purification of water. Those who are generally familiar with this field will immediately embrace the subject as a treatise on solid-liquid separations. However, the subject is much broader, in that the technologies discussed are not just restricted to pollution control hardware that rely only upon physical methods of treating and purifymg wastewaters.

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  • Chlorinated paraffins are one of the last classes of chlorinated compounds that are still being produced worldwide and used in high quantities in many applications. They are particularly used in cutting oils in the metal industry, but also as lubricants, plasticizers, flame retardants and as additives in adhesives, rubber, paints and sealants. This volume covers the state-of-the-art of methods for the synthesis and analysis of chlorinated paraffins. Experts in the field provide an overview of their worldwide occurrence and utilization and describe their toxicological properties.

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  • When one is confronted with a new problem that involves the collection and analysis of data, two crucial questions are: How will using statistics help solve this problem? And, Which techniques should be used? This book is intended to help environmental engineers answer these questions in order to better understand and design systems for environmental protection. The book is not about the environmental systems, except incidentally. It is about how to extract information from data and how informative data are generated in the first place.

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  • A classroom debate at the Wharton School turned out to be a preface to this book. The professor, an economist, handed out an internal memo prepared by Lawrence Summers, then chief economist of the World Bank. He wrote: Just between you and me, shouldn’t the World Bank be encouraging more migration of the dirty industries to the LDCS [less developed countries]? I can think of three reasons:

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  • Chlorinated paraffins are one of the last classes of chlorinated compounds that are still being produced worldwide and used in high quantities in many applications. They are particularly used in cutting oils in the metal industry, but also as lubricants, plasticizers, flame retardants and as additives in adhesives, rubber, paints and sealants. This volume covers the state-of-the-art of methods for the synthesis and analysis of chlorinated paraffins. Experts in the field provide an overview of their worldwide occurrence and utilization and describe their toxicological properties.

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  • When damage is identified with an index, it is difficult exactly match the index with the repair of damage. Therefore, the method is considered difficult to apply them to check the seismic risk based on definition of the changes in the process of damage and other details due to differences in design. To reach this goal, it is first necessary to calculate the design solution reflects the damage and the collapse of a structure under a uniform standard values ​​for different seismic forces....

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  • Paradoxically, skin is both a primary barrier to systemic absorption of topically exposed chemicals and a portal to systemic delivery of transdermal medicaments. Knowledge of the factors that determine both extent and rate of chemical flux across the skin is an important component of both toxicology and pharmacology studies. The aim of this book is to provide current approaches and techniques by which dermal absorption may be quantitated utilizing end points relative to these two disciplines.

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  • This desk study was financed by the EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Joint Research Centre, Ispra. It gives an overview of the occurrence of these organic compounds in sewage sludge, basic toxicological data, a review on persistence of organic contaminants in soils and risk assessments for the various pathways. The attempt was made to identifiy additional substances or substance groups which might cause hazards and should be regulated. Thus it is recommendended that the benzo(a)pyrene concentration in soil is regulated.

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  • Students conduct mechanistic and translational research on: the causes of breast, liver, lung and prostate cancer, inflammatory processes in cardiomyopathy, signal pathway disruption in cardiac hypertrophy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), autoimmunity, neurodevelopmental disorders and identification of pathways of toxicity. Seminars, journal clubs and research retreats are an integral part of the student experience.

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  • Decisions as to which machine and method to use must marry design intent with machine capability. It has therefore become necessary for digitally savvy architects to understand how these tools work, what materials they are best suited for, and where in the tooling process the possibilities lie. Along these lines, architects have begun to couple form with method and revisit tectonic systems as a means to produce material effect. They seek to elevate standard building materials perceptually through nonstandard fabrication processes.

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  • Introduction: Forensic autopsy is an important task for proving crimes medically; unfortunately, every department of legal medicine of Japanese universities is suffering from insufficient staffs and budget. About 30 years ago, one of the authors started the analysis of drugs and poisons at the Department of Legal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine. At that time, the author did not have much knowledge about poison analysis; but it is a good memory that many good friends of toxicological societies gave the author many useful suggestions on analytical methods.

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  • The LCA covered several different environmental impact categories; global warming, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, photooxidant formation and resource use as well as toxicological impact categories. In addition the results were weighted using two different weighting methods; Ecotax 02 and Eco-Indicator 99. The results showed different patterns regarding where in the life cycle the main potential environmental impact can be seen.

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  • In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) released a report titled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. That report pro- posed a new paradigm for toxicity testing that envisioned evaluation of biologi- cally significant perturbations in key toxicity pathways by using new methods in molecular biology, bioinformatics, and computational toxicology and a compre- hensive array of in vitro tests based primarily on human biology. The revolution in toxicity testing is under way, and a large influx of new data is anticipated. The U.S.

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  • This article reviews methods for the determination and identification of trace elements in wine by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Wine is one of the most widely consumed beverages and strict analytical control of trace elements content is required during the whole process of wine production from grape to the final product.

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