Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 71. Vitamin and Trace Mineral Deficiency and Excess
Vitamin and Trace Mineral Deficiency and Excess: Introduction
Vitamins and trace minerals are required constituents of the human diet since they are either inadequately synthesized or not synthesized in the human body. Only small amounts of these substances are needed for carrying out essential biochemical reactions (e.g., acting as coenzymes or prosthetic groups).
At its inception, the original plan for this symposium was to emphasize
the medical aspects of inorganic chemistry, rather than to go over
once more new developments in bioinorganic chemistry, important as the
subject is, since the latter topic has been treated many times in recent
symposia reviews and monographs.
Advances in analytical chemistry methodology now allow us to detect the most minute trace amounts of pesticides. As this capacity grows, so does public concern about toxic contamination, resulting in stricter government regulations and a growing demand for even more sensitive, precise, and reliable analysis
Vitamins and trace minerals are required constituents of the human diet since they are either inadequately synthesized or not synthesized in the human body. Only small amounts of these substances are needed for carrying out essential biochemical reactions (e.g., acting as coenzymes or prosthetic groups). Overt vitamin or trace mineral deficiencies are rare in Western countries due to a plentiful, varied, and inexpensive food supply; however, multiple nutrient deficiencies may appear together in persons who are chronically ill or alcoholic.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 70. Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Assessment
Nutritional Requirements and Dietary Assessment: Introduction Nutrients are substances that must be supplied by the diet because they are not synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts. Nutrient requirements for groups of healthy persons have been determined experimentally. For good health we require energy-providing nutrients (protein, fat, and carbohydrate), vitamins, minerals, and water.
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), principally acetate, propionate and butyrate but also lesser amounts of valerate, caproate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, 2-methylbutyrate and traces of various higher acids, are produced in the rumen as end-products of microbial fermentation....
Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the industrial revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. Mechanical engineering science emerged in the 19th century as a result of developments in the field of physics. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology.
Another important change can be traced to the 1960s and 1970s, when some producers and dealers began
testing the possibility of selling rough diamonds through alternative channels instead of the traditional
practice of selling through the unified sales channel of De Beers’ CSO (see.Figure.8).
In the 1990s major producers began breaking away from the CSO (later transformed into the Diamond
Trading Company, or DTC) to start selling their diamonds independently on the global market.
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The Phycomyces blakesleeanus wild-type is yellow, because it accumulates b-carotene as the main carotenoid. A new carotenoid mutant of this fungus (A486) was isolated, after treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), showing a whitish coloration. It accumulates large amounts of phytoene, small quantities of phyto¯uene, f-carotene and neurosporene, in decreasing amounts, and traces of b-carotene. This phenotype indicates that it carries a leaky mutation aecting the enzyme phytoene dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.-.-), which is speci®ed by the gene carB....