Urinary Tract Infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for as many as 40–45% of nosocomial infections; up to 3% of bacteriuric patients develop bacteremia. Although UTIs contribute only 10–15% to prolongation of hospital stay and to extra costs, these infections are important reservoirs and sources for spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Almost all nosocomial UTIs are associated with preceding instrumentation or indwelling bladder catheters, which create a 3–10% risk of infection each day.
Although not specifically referred to as quick starting, previous Faculty guidance has advised
that contraceptive methods can be started at any point in the menstrual cycle if a
practitioner is reasonably certain that the woman is not currently pregnant (Box 1)8 or at risk
of pregnancy. As sperm may be viable in the female reproductive tract for up to 7 days,
health professionals should consider if a woman is at risk of becoming pregnant as a result of
unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI) within the last 7 days.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 31. Pharyngitis, Sinusitis, Otitis, and Other Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
Pharyngitis, Sinusitis, Otitis, and Other Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: Introduction
Infections of the upper respiratory tract (URIs) have a tremendous impact on public health. They are among the most common reasons for visits to primary care providers, and, although the illnesses are typically mild, their high incidence and transmission rates place them among the leading causes of time lost from work or school.
some of the most important choices you must make as a woman are those for
which you may be least prepared.Your decisions about sexual activity, contraception,family
planning, and reproductive health can affect your life in profound ways. Ideally you
should make these choices, sometimes in conjunction with your doctor or health care
provider, based on accurate information and thoughtful consideration.
Being a man should not seriously damage your health, conclude White and Banks
(2004) in their chapter in a men’s health text. The maxim is used at the beginning of
this text to remind the practice nurse of the fact that being a man in some instances
can and does seriously damage their health. Men are much less likely to visit their
general practice than women. Those men who are aged under 45 years visit their
general practice only half as often as women; it is only when they become older that
the gap narrows signifi cantly....
School-based sexuality and reproductive health education is one of the most important and widespread
ways to help young people improve their reproductive health. Countries in every region have organized
sexuality education programs of one type or another. Such programs, if thoughtfully designed and well
implemented, can provide young people with a solid foundation of knowledge and skills. This paper
summarizes the international experience in carrying out school-based sexuality education programs and
the applicability of this experience to Nigeria.
Recent events make this report both timely and urgent. They have dramatically underscored the
importance of an effective, comprehensive health information infrastructure that links all health
decisionmakers, including the public. Based on public hearings about the NHII, the Committee has
determined that Federal leadership, under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is
the most important missing ingredient that could accelerate and coordinate progress on the NHII.
Including urinary issues in the gynecologic evaluation is helpful. Urinary
tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common reasons to seek medical
care and are sometimes triggered by sexual activity. Urinary incontinence is
an increasingly recognized health problem (see Chapter 10).
Finally, because domestic violence is common (2), screening for current or
previous physical, emotional, or sexual abuse is an important part of the pa-
tient’s history and in some states is mandatory.
This book provides information on alternative and complementary
therapies that can expand the healing spectrum for
individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). It discusses healing
perspectives and paradigms that have not been a part of traditional
modern medicine but that, nevertheless, comprised a key component
of healing armamentaria throughout much of mankind’s history.
Women’s health is composed of a broad range of both normal physiological events in a woman’s life,
and conditions which occur as a result of abnormality of the genital tract and pregnancy. During the
last century, the field of women’s health (and ill health) have rapidly changed and evolved as a clinical
discipline. This is in part due to the changing roles and expectations of women.
From ancient times until the modern technological age, healthcare was mostly for, about and by women. The
wonder of the reproductive cycle, the miracle of birth and the powerless mystery of death were the domains of
women who watched over them. Before the dawn of patriarchy, women were the natural healers and guardians
of the mysteries and stories of the people. Women looked to the earth from where life began and where the
food for sustaining life was grown for help in healing the ill.
Community studies around the world indicate a higher magnitude of
unsafe abortion than do health statistics.
In Zambia, the extent of
maternal mortality from unsafe abortion is not generally known from
health statistics; one study in which women were interviewed revealed
that 69% of the respondents knew one or more women who had
died from an unsafe illegal abortion.
Focus-group discussions and
community-based studies in India11
revealed self-reported abortions
in 28% of women, which is higher than figures derived from national
The concept of nutritional essentiality was firmly established less than 100 years ago. It arose from observations that certain diseases observed in human populations
consuming poor diets could be prevented by including other foods in the diet and that failure of animals fed on diets composed of purified components or restricted to
one or a few foodstuffs to grow and survive could similarly be corrected by including another food or an extract of the food in the diet. The food constituents that were
found to prevent these problems were classified as indispensable (or essential) nutrients.
Vitrification has been investigated for tissue-engineered bone and blood vessels. Liu &
McGrath (2003) explored the potential of vitrification for the cryopreservation of tissueengineered
bone constructs consisting of a hydroxyapatite scaffold-cell complex. Cell
survival was 92.0% for suspended cells and 43.0% for attached cells. In terms of tissueengineered
blood vessel constructs, the effects of vitrification and conventional
cryopreservation were compared (Elder et al., 2005). Collagen-based vascular constructs
were used as models in this study.
Reduced levels of clinical or radiological pneumonia in clin-
ical trials of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
provide an estimate of the vaccine-preventable disease burden
(valency indicates the number of serotypes against which the
vaccine provides protection; conjugate refers to conjugation of
polysaccharides to a protein backbone). In a study in The
Gambia, 37 percent of radiological pneumonia was prevented,
reflecting the amount of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, and
mortality was reduced by 16 percent (Cutts and others 2005).
This book represents an attempt to bring together the latest information and
analysis to assist in meeting the challenge of cancer. Some of the most eminent
European experts in cancer control have contributed to the book. Many of
them will also contribute to the EU Cancer Conference in Slovenia, in
February 2008. The aim of the conference is also to strengthen links between
health-care professionals, cancer patients, policy-makers and other
stakeholders in the cancer community, by sharing their knowledge, experience
and best practices.
NO2 is a product of combustion. It is a precursor to ground-level ozone formation
through photochemical reactions involving VOCs. NO2 causes a brown colour in the
atmosphere at elevated concentrations. It reacts in the atmosphere with ammonia to
form fine particulates, which reduce visibility and increase PM2.5 concentrations
(Levelton Engineering Limited, 2000).
NO2 irritates the mucous membranes in the respiratory tract.
In introducing this symposium, I am expecting that this will be an interesting
meeting for three reasons. First, I have much to learn. Secondly, this is an interest-
ing family of transporters, because there are multiple members, there is rich diver-
sity, and there are some common themes. Thirdly, this is a small meeting which
should permit some excellent discussion.
Historic sites are a finite resource which cannot bereplaced once damaged or destroyed.In contrast withsome nature conservation or landscape designations,which may embrace very extensive tracts of land,designated historic sites tend to be more limited inextent.For example,the average area of a scheduledmonument is only 2.5 hectares and the average area of a registered park and garden is 108 hectares.Listedbuildings and their curtilages generally occupy farsmaller areas.