Vehicles require thrust forces, generated at the tires, to initiate and maintain motion. These forces
are usually referred to as tractive forces or the tractive force requirement. If the required tractive
force (F) is broken into components the major components of the resisting forces to motion are
comprised of acceleration forces (Faccel = ma & I forces), Gradeability requirements (Fgrade),
Aerodynamic loads (Faero) and chassis losses (Froll resist ).
The Canadian Institute of Steel Construction is a national industry organization representing the structural steel,
open-web steel joist and steel plate fabricating industries in Canada. Formed in 1930 and granted a Federal charter
in 1942, the CISC functions as a nonprofit organization promoting the efficient and economic use of fabricated steel
The impacts of fuel consumption by light-duty vehicles
are profound, influencing economic prosperity, national
and Earth’s environment. Increasing energy efficiency
has been a continuing and central objective for automobile
manufacturers and regulators pursuing objectives that
range from reducing vehicle operating costs and improving
performance to reducing dependence on petroleum and
limiting greenhouse gas emissions.