Xem 1-20 trên 78 kết quả Trade credit
  • On September 15, 2008, Lehman Brothers, the fourth-largest U.S. investment bank, filed for bankruptcy, marking the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history and the burst of the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis. Concerns about the soundness of U.S. credit and financial markets led to tightened global credit markets around the world. Spreads skyrocketed. International trade plummeted by double digits, as figure O.1 illustrates. Banks reportedly could not meet customer demand to finance international trade operations, leaving a trade finance “gap” estimated at around $25 billion.

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  • The authors study the effect of financial crises on trade credit in a sample of 890 firms in six emerging economies. They find that although provision of trade credit increases right after the crisis, it consequently collapses in the following months and years. The authors observe that firms with weaker financial position (for example, high pre-crisis level of short-term debt and low cash stocks and cash flows) are more likely to reduce trade credit provided to their customers.

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  • Trade finance has received special attention during the financial crisis as one of the potential culprits for the great trade collapse. Several researchers have used micro level data to establish the link between trade finance and trade, especially so during the financial crisis, and have found diverting results. This paper analyses the effect of trade credit on trade on a macro level through a whole cycle. We employ Berne Union data on export credit insurance, the most extensive dataset on trade credits available at the moment, for the period of 2005- 2011.

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  • Chapter 9 - Short-term debt. The following will be discussed in this chapter: trade credit, bank overdrafts, commercial bills, calculations: discount securities, promissory notes, negotiable certificates of deposit, inventory finance, accounts receivable, financing and factoring.

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  • This guide explains the different methods of getting paid and the different levels of risks involved. You should note that none of the methods outlined below will completely eliminate the payment risks associated with international trade, so you should consider your preferred payment option with care and hedge the risks along with appropriate credit insurance and credit checks on your customers.

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  • Credit cards are a means of exchange, not a payment. Ultimate payment by the card user occurs at the end of the month when a cheques is written or a bank a/c is debited to settle the outstanding balance. In that respect, credit cards are akin to trade credit for the users, and a substitute credit long extended by retailers to customers.

    doc1p baohung1989 31-12-2009 195 108   Download

  • Letters of credit accomplish their purpose by substituting the credit of the bank for that of the customer, for the purpose of facilitating trade.

    doc9p Ngocbui 24-04-2009 120 63   Download

  • This revision of the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (commonly called “UCP”) is the sixth revision of the rules since they were first promulgated in 1933. It is the fruit of more than three years of work by the International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) Commission on Banking Technique and Practice. ICC, which was established in 1919, had as its primary objective facilitating the flow of international trade at a time when nationalism and protectionism posed serious threats to the world trading system....

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  • Welcome to the second edition of the Trade Finance Guide: A Quick Reference for U.S. Exporters. This guide is designed to help U.S. companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), learn the basic fundamentals of trade finance so that they can turn their export opportunities into actual sales and achieve the ultimate goal of getting paid—especially on time—for those sales. This guide provides general information about common techniques of export financing.

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  • The literature on international trade, growth, and development is huge. We do not pretend to even attempt to cover this large literature in any systematic fashion. Instead, this book contains essays, written over three decades, focusing on some of the relatively neglected issues.

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  • Consumer access to credit, housing, insurance, basic utility services, and even employment is increasingly determined by centralized records of credit history and automated interpretations of those records. Credit histories in one form or another have long been an important factor in decisions to extend or deny credit to consumers 1 . Historically, such decisions required a skilled, human evaluation of the information in an applicant’ s credit history to determine the likelihood that the applicant would repay a future loan in a timely manner.

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  • In this paper we propose a new, information-based approach for modelling the dynamic evolution of a portfolio of credit risky securities. In our setup market prices of traded credit derivatives are given by the solution of a nonlinear filtering problem. The innovations approach to nonlinear filtering is used to solve this problem and to derive the dynamics of market prices. Moreover, the practical application of the model is discussed: we analyse calibration, the pricing of exotic credit derivatives and the computation of risk-minimizing hedging strategies.

    pdf29p enter1cai 12-01-2013 19 3   Download

  • Chapter 11 - Short-term financing. After studying chapter 11, you should be able to: Understand the sources and types of spontaneous financing, calculate the annual cost of trade credit when trade discounts are forgone, explain what is meant by “stretching payables” and understand its potential drawbacks, describe the various types of negotiated (or external) short-term financing,...

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  • After studying chapter 11, you should be able to: Understand the sources and types of spontaneous financing, calculate the annual cost of trade credit when trade discounts are forgone, explain what is meant by “stretching payables” and understand its potential drawbacks, describe the various types of negotiated (or external) short-term financing,...

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  • Adjusted present value (APV) The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity (present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

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  • A standard, commercial letter of credit (LC) is a document issued mostly by a financial institution, used primarily in trade finance, which usually provides an irrevocable payment undertaking. The letter of credit can also be source of payment for a transaction, meaning that redeeming the letter of credit will pay an exporter. Letters of credit are used primarily in international trade transactions of significant value, for deals between a supplier in one country and a customer in another.

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  • • Permanent Assets (those held 1 year) – should be financed with permanent and spontaneous sources of financing. • Temporary Assets (those held • Permanent Financing – intermediate-term loans, long-term debt, preferred stock, common stock • Spontaneous Financing – accounts payable that arise spontaneously in day-to-day operations (trade credit, wages payable, accrued interest and taxes) • Short-term financing – unsecured bank loans, commercial paper, loans secured by A/R or inventory...

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  • Nicholas Biddle, president of the Second Bank of the United States: "And how can you do that Nick" "Andy, I can make or break any business man in the country," Andy Jackson, the Indian brave fighters, asking Nick replied, "by extending credit or a loan." and Andy back, "Then Nick, eternal, I will kill your bank" - and he did and that is exactly what he wanted Andy to do because Nick's heart was set lapvao private banks, and from that disastrous action in the 1830's Andy Nation has lived a busy life at the mercy of banks believed to...

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  • Most discussions of corporate financing policy focus on long-term liabilities such as common stock, preferred stock, debentures, loans, and leases. Yet trade credit—credit extended by a seller who allows delayed payment for its products—represents a substantial component of both corporate liabilities and assets, especially in the case of middle-market companies. For the 3,350 non-financial Nasdaq firms covered by COMPUSTAT, accounts receivable amounted to 19% of corporate assets, and accounts payable were 26% of corporate liabilities, at the end of 1992.

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  • CHAPTER 16 Financing Current Assets Working capital financing policies A/P (trade credit) Commercial paper S-T bank loans Working capital financing policies Moderate – Match the maturity of the assets with the maturity of the financing. Aggressive – Use short-term financing to finance permanent assets.

    pdf24p summerflora 31-10-2010 55 16   Download

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