Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Analysis of the Tradeoff between Delay and Source Rate in Multiuser Wireless Systems
Traditional Information Extraction (IE) takes a relation name and hand-tagged examples of that relation as input. Open IE is a relationindependent extraction paradigm that is tailored to massive and heterogeneous corpora such as the Web. An Open IE system extracts a diverse set of relational tuples from text without any relation-speciﬁc input. How is Open IE possible? We analyze a sample of English sentences to demonstrate that numerous relationships are expressed using a compact set of relation-independent lexico-syntactic patterns, which can be learned by an Open IE system. ...
Linguistic access to uncertain quantitative knowledge about physical properties is provided by d i m e n s i o n a l adjectives, e.g. long-short in the spatial and temporal senses, near-far, fast-slow, etc. Semantic analyses of the dimensional adjectives differ on whether the meaning of the differential comparative (6 cm shorter than) and the equative with factor term (three times as long as) is a compositional function of the meanings the difference and factor terms (6 cm and three times) and the meanings of the simple comparative and equative, respectively.
In this chapter we examine this tradeoff more closely. The relationship between inflation and unemployment is a topic that has attracted the attention of some of the most important economists of the last half century. The best way to understand this relationship is to see how thinking about it has evolved over time.
(1) Since the simpler model features less regressor than the larger model, it follows that the VIF of
the simpler model will be less than that of the larger model. The reason is that the more variables
we include in the model, the greater multicollinearity, and, hence, the greater Rj
, unless the
omitted variables happen to be orthogonal to the regressors included in the simpler model. The
simpler model, which omits relevant variables, produces bias estimates but with smaller
variances. Consequently, there appears to be a tradeoff between bias and precision.
The past three decades have brought sweeping changes to the i eld of transportation.
In the United States and other developed nations, deregulation and greater reliance on
markets and the private sector has helped to reconi gure the transport industries. The
rise of intermodal goods movements and global commerce has produced efi ciencies
of operation and a greater interdependence among transport modes.
The Phillips curve is a historical inverse relation and tradeoff between the rate of
unemployment and the rate of inflation in an economy. Stated simply, the lower the
unemployment in an economy, the higher the rate of change in wages paid to labour in that
Time-frequency representations (TFR) combine the time-domain and frequency-domain representations into a single framework to obtain the notion of time-frequency. TFR offer the time localization vs. frequency localization tradeoff between two extreme cases of time-domain and frequency-domain representations. The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] and the Gabor transform  are the classical examples of linear time-frequency transforms which use time-shifted and
Calculating sensitivity and specificity requires selection of a decision value for the test to define the threshold value at or above which the test is considered "positive." For any given test, as this cut point is moved to improve sensitivity, specificity typically falls and vice versa.
This dynamic tradeoff between more accurate identification of subjects with disease versus those without disease is often displayed graphically as a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Fig. 3-1). An ROC curve plots sensitivity (y-axis) versus 1 – specificity (x-axis).
Provide a vocabulary to describe complex resource
bundles. In any system, be it administrative or market-
based, users need a mechanism to express their resource
holdings and desires. Markets, which have been used for
decades to capture difﬁcult resource allocation problems
(e.g. energy markets, wireless spectrum auctions, airline
landing slot exchanges), can also be used to capture the
intricacies of systems problems.
Critical loads, and other approaches that use models or empirical observations to link deposition with effects, provide tools that enable
resource managers and policymakers to evaluate tradeoffs between the costs of more stringent emissions controls and the benefits of
ecosystem services provided by healthy ecosystems.
A critical loads approach can be used to synthesize scientific knowledge about air pollution thresholds that cause adverse impacts
or ecosystem change.
This book aims at attracting the interest of researchers and practitioners around the applicability of meta-heuristic algorithms to practical scenarios arising from different knowledge disciplines. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence as computational means to efficiently balance the tradeoff between optimality of the produced solutions and the complexity derived from their estimation.
Distributional similarity is a useful notion in estimating the probabilities of rare joint events. It has been employed both to cluster events according to their distributions, and to directly compute averages of estimates for distributional neighbors of a target event. Here, we examine the tradeoffs between model size and prediction accuracy for cluster-based and nearest neighbors distributional models of unseen events.
To tackle the problem of presenting a large number of options in spoken dialogue systems, we identify compelling options based on a model of user preferences, and present tradeoffs between alternative options explicitly. Multiple attractive options are structured such that the user can gradually reﬁne her request to ﬁnd the optimal tradeoff. We show that our approach presents complex tradeoffs understandably, increases overall user satisfaction, and signiﬁcantly improves the user’s overview of the available options.
We present and evaluate a new model for Natural Language Generation (NLG) in Spoken Dialogue Systems, based on statistical planning, given noisy feedback from the current generation context (e.g. a user and a surface realiser). We study its use in a standard NLG problem: how to present information (in this case a set of search results) to users, given the complex tradeoffs between utterance length, amount of information conveyed, and cognitive load. We set these trade-offs by analysing existing MATCH data.
This work evaluates a set of global forward support location (FSL) options for storing war reserve materiel (WRM). These option packages or “portfolios” have differing numbers and types of FSLs, e.g., land-based or afloat, and have differing allocations of WRM at the alternative sites. Evaluations of these packages address the effectiveness and efficiency of the options in meeting a wide variety of potential scenarios. In this monograph, we present capability-based analytic tools to evaluate the tradeoffs between various FSL options. A central element of our anal...
In adding syntax to statistical MT, there is a tradeoff between taking advantage of linguistic analysis, versus allowing the model to exploit linguistically unmotivated mappings learned from parallel training data. A number of previous efforts have tackled this tradeoff by starting with a commitment to linguistically motivated analyses and then ﬁnding appropriate ways to soften that commitment.
In this chapter you will get an overview of how the U.S. government raises and spends money, examine the efficiency costs of taxes, learn alternative ways to judge the equity of a tax system, see why studying tax incidence is crucial for evaluating tax equity, consider the tradeoff between efficiency and equity in the design of a tax system.
Chapter 14 - Monetary policy. In this chapter, you will: Learn about the Bank of Canada and its functions, analyze the tools the Bank of Canada uses to conduct monetary policy, examine the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment.
Chapter 10 - Business cycles, unemployment, and inflation. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Compare and contrast potential GDP and real GDP, define the unemployment rate and distinguish between the different types of unemployment, explain the tradeoff between unemployment and inflation, define recessions and discuss the impact of recessions on workers and businesses, list the possible causes of recession.