This paper presents a comparative study of target dependency structures yielded by several state-of-the-art linguistic parsers. Our approach is to measure the impact of these nonisomorphic dependency structures to be used for string-to-dependency translation. Besides using traditional dependency parsers, we also use the dependency structures transformed from PCFG trees and predicate-argument structures (PASs) which are generated by an HPSG parser and a CCG parser.
Reading proﬁciency is a fundamental component of language competency. However, ﬁnding topical texts at an appropriate reading level for foreign and second language learners is a challenge for teachers. This task can be addressed with natural language processing technology to assess reading level. Existing measures of reading level are not well suited to this task, but previous work and our own pilot experiments have shown the beneﬁt of using statistical language models.
Traditional concatenative speech synthesis systems use a number of heuristics to deﬁne the target and concatenation costs, essential for the design of the unit selection component. In contrast to these approaches, we introduce a general statistical modeling framework for unit selection inspired by automatic speech recognition. Given appropriate data, techniques based on that framework can result in a more accurate unit selection, thereby improving the general quality of a speech synthesizer. They can also lead to a more modular and a substantially more efﬁcient system. ...
Discriminative methods have shown signiﬁcant improvements over traditional generative methods in many machine learning applications, but there has been diﬃculty in extending them to natural language parsing. One problem is that much of the work on discriminative methods conﬂates changes to the learning method with changes to the parameterization of the problem. We show how a parser can be trained with a discriminative learning method while still parameterizing the problem according to a generative probability model.
We introduce a semi-supervised approach to training for statistical machine translation that alternates the traditional Expectation Maximization step that is applied on a large training corpus with a discriminative step aimed at increasing word-alignment quality on a small, manually word-aligned sub-corpus. We show that our algorithm leads not only to improved alignments but also to machine translation outputs of higher quality.
One advantage of Short Messaging Service (SMS) texts bethis pre-translation normalization is that the dihave quite differently from normal written versity in different user groups and domains can texts and have some very special phenombe modeled separately without accessing and ena. To translate SMS texts, traditional adapting the language model of the MT system approaches model such irregularities difor each SMS application. Another advantage is rectly in Machine Translation (MT).
Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) addresses the problem of extracting semantic meaning conveyed in an utterance. The traditional knowledge-based approach to this problem is very expensive -- it requires joint expertise in natural language processing and speech recognition, and best practices in language engineering for every new domain. On the other hand, a statistical learning approach needs a large amount of annotated data for model training, which is seldom available in practical applications outside of large research labs. ...
Chaos and the quantum mechanical behaviour of classically chaotic systems have been
attracting increasing attention. Initially, there was perhaps more emphasis on the
theoretical side, but this is now being backed up by experimental work to an increasing
extent. The words 'Quantum Chaos' are often used these days, usually with an
undertone of unease, the reason being that, in contrast to classical chaos, quantum chaos
is ill defined; some authors say it is non-existent. So, why is it that an increasing
number of physicists are devoting their efforts to a subject so fuzzily defined?...
The U.S. EPA has targeted wood furniture manufacturers because they are the largest industrial
users of solvents in paints and coatings among original equipment manufacturers in the United
States, using over twice as much solvents as automobile manufacturers.
Wood is coated to
protect it from physical and chemical damage, and natural degradation, as well as to impart an
aesthetically pleasing finish.
To communicate effectively with the media, the national statistical
organization must understand the profile of their media community.
This calls for an awareness of the types of media in the region, the
needs of these media and their coverage area, so that the
statistical organization can provide customized services that meet
their various information needs.
Traditionally, the media have encompassed newspapers, radio
and television. However, the relative importance of these media
vehicles has evolved over time.
Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life
sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal
designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biol-ogy, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on
This minireview is based on a lecture given at the First Maga Circe Confer-ence on metabolomics held at Sabaudia, Italy, in March 2006 in which the
analytical and statistical techniques used in metabonomics, efforts at stan-dardization and some of the major applications to pharmaceutical research
and development are reviewed.
To address questions of protein stability, researchers have
increasingly turned to combinatorial approaches that permit
the rapid analysis of libraries of protein variants. Phage-displayhasprovedtobeapowerful tool foranalyzingprotein
stabilitydue to the large library sizeand the robustnessof the
The Wnt pathway controls biological processes via the regulation of target
gene expression. The expression of direct Wnt target genes, e.g.cyclin D1
and MYC, is activated by the transcription factor TCF, which binds to
specific sequence motifs in the promoter. Indirect target genes are regulated
via transcription regulators, which are targets of the Wnt pathway.
Like other GCC countries, Saudi Arabia, as the world’s largest producer and
exporter of oil, has benefitted from increasing oil revenues in recent years. Although
Saudi Arabia has not formally established a SWF, its central bank holds a significant
amount of international investments outside of traditional foreign reserves, and thus
is not reflected on the previous chart. Separately, the Saudi central bank controls an
estimated $320 billion in foreign assets, with “additional reserves that are not made
public for national security reasons.
Almost all protein database search methods use amino acid substitution
matrices for scoring, optimizing, and assessing the statistical significance of
sequence alignments. Much care and effort has therefore gone into con-structing substitution matrices, and the quality of search results can depend
strongly upon the choice of the proper matrix. A long-standing problem
has been the comparison of sequences with biased amino acid composi-tions, for which standard substitution matrices are not optimal....
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed on
human leukemic daunorubicin-sensitiveK562 cells and their
multiresistant counterpart derived by selection. Statistical
analysis, including variable reduction and linear discrimi-nant analysis was performed on sensitive and multiresistant
cells spectra in order to establish a diagnostic tool for
multiresistant pattern. For each of the twomethods of data
reduction tested [genetic algorithm or principal component
analysis (PCA)] discriminationbetween the twocell lineswas
found to be possible....
After reading this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions: Why is it hard for people to make good decisions? How do models help managers make better decisions? What are the key elements of decision support systems? How is data mining different from traditional statistical analysis? What is the purpose of OLAP? What is a digital dashboard? What are the advantages of an EIS? How can a GIS help managers make better decisions?
Operations and industrial modeling and management have a long history
dating back to the first Industrial Revolution. Scheduling, inventory control,
production planning, projects management, control charts, statistical
records, customer satisfaction questionnaires, rankings and benchmarking.
are some of the tools used for the purpose of better managing operations
MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) is a matrix-oriented tool for mathematical
programming, applied for numerical computation and simulation purposes. Together
with its dynamic simulation toolbox Simulink, as a graphical environment for the
simulation of dynamic systems, it has become a very powerful tool suitable for a large
number of applications in many areas of research and development.