Transaction costs

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  • Inter Organizational information system use in supply chaizn : Toward an integration of competence based and transaction cost based views of the firm Importantly, one would expect the degree of local competition in public schooling (i.e. the number of school districts in the local area among which parents can choose) to affect the magnitude of θ * whenever parents care both about peer groups and school effectiveness.

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  • When you finish this chapter, you should: Explain the effects of positive and negative externalities with the aid of supply and demand analysis, discuss the policy options to correct for externalities, discuss the relative importance of property rights and transaction costs in market-based approaches to dealing with the problem of externalities, discuss cap-and-trade programmes, provide examples of global or regional public goods and consider some of the relevant policy implications.

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  • Fraught with arcane rituals, hidden traps and pitfalls, and confusing legal mumbo jumbo, the closing can be the most harrowing part of the home buying equation. Modeled after Robert Irwin's popular Home Buyer's Checklist, this book is packed with checklists, pointers, questions, and tactics that help a home buyer close the deal without losing his or her sense of humor, sanity, or shirt, including:

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  • In a “perfect world” environment with no taxes, no transaction costs and perfectly efficient financial markets, capital structure does not matter. This is known as the Independence hypothesis: firm value is independent of capital structure.

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  • To an economist, a contract is an agreement under which two parties make reciprocal commitments in terms of their behavior - a bilateral coordination arrangement. Of course, this formulation touches on the legal concept of the contract (a meeting of minds creating effects in law), but also transcends it.

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  • Tài liệu về kinh tế học pháp luật. Tài liệu bằng tiếng Anh, mời các bạn cùng tham khảo. Excursus: Coase Theorem: “In a world of zero transaction costs an efficient allocation of resource will ensue regardless of the initial distribution of resources.“

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  • This essay reflects upon the relationship between the current theory of financial intermediation and real-world practice. Our critical analysis of this theory leads to several building blocks of a new theory of financial intermediation. Current financial intermediation theory builds on the notion that intermediaries serve to reduce transaction costs and informational asymmetries. As developments in information technology, deregulation, deepening of financial markets, etc.

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  • In a decentralized-decisions economic environment, agents consider the risk that others might unfairly exploit informational asymmetries to their own advantage. Incomplete trust, affects, in particular, financial transactions whereby agents trade current real claims for promises of future real claims. Agents thus invest considerable resources to assess the trustworthiness of others with whom they know they can interact only under conditions of limited and asymmetrically distributed information, and to ensure compliance with contractual obligations.

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  • Once an obscure subfield of finance, Market Microstructure has emerged as a major stream of finance. In its narrowest sense, microstructure might be defined as the study of the level and the source of transactions costs associated with trading. It examines the organizational structure of exchanges and how the specific market structure enhances the efficiency, transparency and information dissemination of security trading.

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  • Chapter 49 MBS VALUATION AND PREPAYMENTS. Abstract This paper not only provides a comparison of recent models in the valuation of mortgage-backed securities but also proposes an integrated model that addresses important issues of path-dependence, exogenous prepayment, transaction costs, mortgagors’ heterogeneity, and the housing devaluation effect.

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  • As noted above, IFRS 4 does not require separation if the component itself meets the definition of an insurance contract. In considering whether this exemption applies, insurance risk is assessed in relation to the component. It may happen that the contract as a whole does not fall within the scope of IFRS 4 because it does not contain significant insurance risk, but that the component itself contains significant insurance risk and, had it been a separate contract, would have fallen within the definition of an insurance contract.

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  • The Rome ‘Declaration on Harmonisation’ of February 2003, states that: 4 ‘We in the donor community have been concerned with the growing evidence that, over time, the totality and wide variety of donor requirements for preparing, delivering and monitoring development assistance are generating unproductive transaction costs for, and drawing down the limited capacities of, partner countries’ and that ‘donor practices do not always fit well with national development priorities’. The EC will therefore play its part in promoting harmonisation of policies and practices.

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  • Levine explains what the financial system does and how it affects, and is affected by, economic growth. Theory suggests that financial instruments, markets, and institutions arise to mitigate the effects of information and transaction costs. A growing literature shows that differences in how well financial systems reduce information and transaction costs influence savings rates, investment decisions, technological innovation, and long-run growth rates. A less developed theoretical literature shows how changes in economic activity can influence financial systems.

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  • With globalisation and knowledge-based production, firms may cooperate on a global scale, outsource parts of their administrative or productive units and negate location altogether. The extremely low transaction costs of data, information and knowledge seem to invalidate the theory of agglomeration and the spatial clustering of firms, going back to the classical work by Alfred Weber (1868-1958) and Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), who emphasized the microeconomic benefits of industrial collocation.

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  • In the MCA, three evaluation aspects were considered: feasibility; applicability; and effects of financing mechanisms. Each of these aspects further consisted of specific criteria, resulting in total of eight evaluating criteria (for more details see chapter 6.4.3 and annexes 24 and 26): legal feasibility; institutional feasibility; social feasibility; preparation, technical applicability; transaction costs; effectiveness; and side effects.

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  • The Manager may, in some years and in certain cases, absorb a portion of management fees or fixed administration fees of the Fund or series of the Fund. The decision to absorb these expenses is reviewed periodically and determined at the discretion of the Manager, without notice to shareholders. (c) Commissions and other portfolio transaction costs The Fund may execute trades with and or through BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc., an affiliate of the Manager based on established standard brokerage agreements at market prices.

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  • Distance-based insurance reflects the principle that prices should be based on costs. It gives consumers a new way to save money by returning to individual motorists the insurance cost savings that result when they drive less. Motorists who continue their current mileage would be no worse off on average then they are now (excepting any additional transaction costs), while those who reduce their mileage save money. Distance-based pricing can help achieve several public policy goals including actuarial accuracy, equity, affordability, road safety, consumer savings and choice.

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  • A more specialised health care insurance market – private long-term care (LTC) insurance – is absent or very limited in countries with comprehensive public long-term care benefits, such as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Japan and Luxembourg. In Germany, LTC cover is statutory for every resident.

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  • Technologies are playing a critical role in reducing the costs of transmitting transaction details between the customer, the retailer, the financial service provider and eventually third parties. Payment facilities encompass a variety of products (e.g. giro accounts, call accounts, transaction accounts,..) and services (e.g. bill payment, check payment, direct debit, stop orders, money transfers, credit transfers, disburse- ments, e-payments, mobile payments,…) for managing the transfer of funds to/from a customer or a third party.

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  • Being clear about the business objectives for implementing a PMO or developing its role is essential if it is to deliver significant improvements in project performance and justify the cost. Which and how many of the four objectives we described at the start are relevant will depend on the business problems the PMO is intended to overcome. Once the problems are clear and agreed, the type and range of services required to address them can be defined. This will determine the type of PMO that is needed. Only then can the type of skill and expertise needed by the PMO...

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