Transfusion

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  • Blood transfusion is a field where there has been, and continue to be, significant advances in science, technology and most particularly governance. The aim of this book is to provide students of allied medical sciences, medicine and transfusion practitioners with a comprehensive overview of both the scientific and managerial aspects of blood transfusion. The book is intended to equip biomedical, clinical and allied medical professionals with practical tools to allow for an informed practice in the field of blood transfusion management....

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  • Tham khảo sách 'transfusion medicine made easy for students of allied medical sciences and medicine authored', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Immune-Mediated Reactions Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions Immune-mediated hemolysis occurs when the recipient has preformed antibodies that lyse donor erythrocytes. The ABO isoagglutinins are responsible for the majority of these reactions, although alloantibodies directed against other RBC antigens, i.e., Rh, Kell, and Duffy, may result in hemolysis. Acute hemolytic reactions may present with hypotension, tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, chills, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, chest and/or flank pain, and discomfort at the infusion site.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 107. Transfusion Biology and Therapy Blood Group Antigens and Antibodies The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes.

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  • Other Hepatitis Viruses Hepatitis A virus is rarely transmitted by transfusion; infection is typically asymptomatic and does not lead to chronic disease. Other transfusion-transmitted viruses—TTV, SEN-V, and GBV-C—do not cause chronic hepatitis or other disease states. Routine testing does not appear to be warranted. West Nile Virus Transfusion-transmitted WNV infections were documented in 2002. This RNA virus can be detected using NAT; routine screening began in 2003, and more than 1000 blood donors have tested positive.

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  • Alternatives to Transfusion Alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusions that avoid homologous donor exposures with attendant immunologic and infectious risks remain attractive. Autologous blood is the best option when transfusion is anticipated. However, the cost:benefit ratio of autologous transfusion remains high. No transfusion is a zerorisk event; clerical errors and bacterial contamination remain potential complications even with autologous transfusions.

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  • The MNSsU system is regulated by genes on chromosome 4. M and N are determinants on glycophorin A, an RBC membrane protein, and S and s are determinants on glycophorin B. Anti-S and anti-s IgG antibodies may develop after pregnancy or transfusion and lead to hemolysis. Anti-U antibodies are rare but problematic; virtually every donor is incompatible because nearly all persons express U. The Kell protein is very large (720 amino acids), and its secondary structure contains many different antigenic epitopes. The immunogenicity of Kell is third behind the ABO and Rh systems.

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  • Anaphylactic Reaction This severe reaction presents after transfusion of only a few milliliters of the blood component. Symptoms and signs include difficulty breathing, coughing, nausea and vomiting, hypotension, bronchospasm, loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest, and shock. Treatment includes stopping the transfusion, maintaining vascular access, and administering epinephrine (0.5–1.0 mL of 1:1000 dilution subcutaneously). Glucocorticoids may be required in severe cases.

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  • Nonimmunologic Reactions Fluid Overload Blood components are excellent volume expanders, and transfusion may quickly lead to volume overload. Monitoring the rate and volume of the transfusion and using a diuretic can minimize this problem. Hypothermia Refrigerated (4°C) or frozen (–18°C or below) blood components can result in hypothermia when rapidly infused. Cardiac dysrhythmias can result from exposing the sinoatrial node to cold fluid. Use of an in-line warmer will prevent this complication.

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  • Contents Preface 1Key recommendations 3Policy recommendations 3Technical recommendations 41 Introduction 51.1 Context 51.2 Constraints and challenges 51.3 Aim and objectives 61.4 Target audience 71.5 Methodology 82 National blood screening programme fortransfusion-transmissible infections 102.1 Developing a national blood screening programme 102.2 National policy on blood screening 102.3 National screening strategy 112.3.1 Screening algorithms 122.4 Organization and management 122.4.1 Blood transfusion service(s) 122.4.2 Reference laboratory 132.5 Financial and human resources 132.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Immunohematology and transfusion medicine - A case study approach" presents the following contents: Basic single antibody identification - how hard can it be, rhesus pieces, cold case, hide and seek, the transfusion reaction, what the kell,...

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Immunohematology and transfusion medicine - A case study approach" presents the following contents: Playing with enzymes, differential alloadsorption, the case of low platelets, cruising for a bruising, do the math,...

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  • The art of fluid administration and haemodynamic support is one of the most challenging aspects of current critical care practice. Although more than half the patients in intensive care units (ICU) receive blood transfusions there is little in the way of data to guide decisions on when to give transfusions. The American College of Physicians, among others, has published a transfusion algorithm.1 However, this is based, not on controlled clinical trials, but on expert opinion. Despite these guidelines, transfusion practice varies widely....

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  • The first edition of Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine was published in 1951, at a time when the subject was, if not in its infancy, certainly in its very early childhood. Transfusions were given for the treatment of acute blood loss or for the relief of chronic anaemia. Platelet and leucocyte transfusions were not attempted and plasma fractions were not available.

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  • Clinical transfusion medicine is an evolving subspecialty, which straddles traditional areas of pathology and clinical hematology. This subspecialities is concerned with aspects of blood procurement, including safety, logistics and economics, and the appropriate use of blood products in different clinical situations. This causes the transfusion medicine physician to interact with (and occasionally come into conflict with!) surgeons, anesthesiologists, internists, and many subspecialists in internal medicine, particularly, oncologists and hematologists....

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  • As with the first edition, the primary purpose of this book is to describe human blood group antigens and their inheritance, the antibodies that define them, the structure and functions of the red cell membrane macromolecules that carry them, and the genes that encode them or control their biosynthesis. In addition, this book provides information on the clinical relevance of blood groups and on the importance of blood group antibodies in transfusion medicine in particular.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Variation in red cell transfusion practice in the intensive care unit: a multicentre cohort study...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Red blood cell transfusion does not increase oxygen consumption in critically ill septic patients...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine appropriate blood transfusion strategies in patients with acute coronary syndromes...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Risk factors for post-ICU red blood cell transfusion: a prospective study...

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