dịc là chuyểntừ ngôn ngữ này sang một nhiệm vụ không hề dễ dàng. Một mức độ nhất định về ý nghĩa
mất là một chỉ tiêu do sự khác biệt giữa các ngôn ngữ và văn hóa. Hơn sự chênh lệch
tồn tại giữa bất kỳ hai ngôn ngữ, mất ý nghĩa trong bản dịch. Điều này
đặc biệt là khi các bản dịch được thực hiện theo các nguyên tắc của
thuần dịch thuật, nghĩa là, mục tiêu ngôn ngữ (TL) theo định hướng phương pháp tiếp cận...
Address Conversion Functions and The Domain Name System
Refs: Chapter 9 RFC 1034 RFC 1035
Netprog: DNS and name lookups 1
• IP Addresses are great for computers
– IP address includes information used for routing.
• IP addresses are tough for humans to remember. • IP addresses are impossible to guess.
– ever guessed at the name of a WWW site?
Netprog: DNS and name lookups 2
The Domain Name System
• The domain name system is usually used to translate a host name into an IP address .
A short term solution to the problem of the depletion of IP addresses
Long term solution is IP v6 (or whatever is finally agreed on)
CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing ) is a possible short term solution
NAT is another
NAT is a way to conserve IP addresses
Hide a number of hosts behind a single IP address
192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 for local networks
We investigate authorship attribution using classiﬁers based on frame semantics. The purpose is to discover whether adding semantic information to lexical and syntactic methods for authorship attribution will improve them, speciﬁcally to address the difﬁcult problem of authorship attribution of translated texts.
Hierarchical phrase-based models are attractive because they provide a consistent framework within which to characterize both local and long-distance reorderings, but they also make it dif cult to distinguish many implausible reorderings from those that are linguistically plausible. Rather than appealing to annotationdriven syntactic modeling, we address this problem by observing the in uential role of function words in determining syntactic structure, and introducing soft constraints on function word relationships as part of a standard log-linear hierarchical phrase-based model. ...
This paper addresses the task of handling unknown terms in SMT. We propose using source-language monolingual models and resources to paraphrase the source text prior to translation. We further present a conceptual extension to prior work by allowing translations of entailed texts rather than paraphrases only. A method for performing this process efﬁciently is presented and applied to some 2500 sentences with unknown terms. Our experiments show that the proposed approach substantially increases the number of properly translated texts. ...
When automatically translating from a weakly inﬂected source language like English to a target language with richer grammatical features such as gender and dual number, the output commonly contains morpho-syntactic agreement errors. To address this issue, we present a target-side, class-based agreement model.
To address the parse error issue for tree-tostring translation, this paper proposes a similarity-based decoding generation (SDG) solution by reconstructing similar source parse trees for decoding at the decoding time instead of taking multiple source parse trees as input for decoding. Experiments on Chinese-English translation demonstrated that our approach can achieve a significant improvement over the standard method, and has little impact on decoding speed in practice.
This paper describes a method of interactively visualizing and directing the process of translating a sentence. The method allows a user to explore a model of syntax-based statistical machine translation (MT), to understand the model’s strengths and weaknesses, and to compare it to other MT systems. Using this visualization method, we can ﬁnd and address conceptual and practical problems in an MT system. In our demonstration at ACL, new users of our tool will drive a syntaxbased decoder for themselves.
The problem we address in this paper is that of providing contextual examples of translation equivalents for words from the general lexicon using comparable corpora and semantic annotation that is uniform for the source and target languages. For a sentence, phrase or a query expression in the source language the tool detects the semantic type of the situation in question and gives examples of similar contexts from the target language corpus.
In this paper, we address statistical machine translation of public conference talks. Modeling the style of this genre can be very challenging given the shortage of available in-domain training data. We investigate the use of a hybrid LM, where infrequent words are mapped into classes. Hybrid LMs are used to complement word-based LMs with statistics about the language style of the talks. Extensive experiments comparing different settings of the hybrid LM are reported on publicly available benchmarks based on TED talks, from Arabic to English and from English to French.
This chapter has outlined: How NAT is used to help alleviate the depletion of the IPv4 address space; NAT conserves public address space and saves considerable administrative overhead in managing adds, moves, and changes; NAT for IPv4; The configuration, verification, and analysis of static NAT, dynamic NAT, and NAT with overloading;... Inviting you to refer lecture for more information.
The objectives of this chapter: Identify private IP addresses as described in RFC 1918; discuss characteristics of NAT and PAT; explain the benefits of NAT; explain how to configure NAT and PAT, including static translation, dynamic translation, and overloading.
All USB drives and other drives of recent vintage support logical block addressing (LBA). With LBA, blocks of storage capability are numbered sequentially beginning at zero. All blocks have the same size, again typically 512 bytes. The logical block address is often referred to as a sector address because the block size equals the capacity of a sector in a hard drive. To access the media, software specifies the logical block address to read or write to. For hard drives, the drive’s controller translates each LBA to a cylinder, head, and sector on the drive. For flash drives, the drive’s...
In this paper, we address the issue for learning better translation consensus in machine translation (MT) research, and explore the search of translation consensus from similar, rather than the same, source sentences or their spans. Unlike previous work on this topic, we formulate the problem as structured labeling over a much smaller graph, and we propose a novel structured label propagation for the task.
This paper presents a novel method to suggest long word reorderings to a phrase-based SMT decoder. We address language pairs where long reordering concentrates on few patterns, and use fuzzy chunk-based rules to predict likely reorderings for these phenomena. Then we use reordered n-gram LMs to rank the resulting permutations and select the n-best for translation.
Some Statistical Machine Translation systems never see the light because the owner of the appropriate training data cannot release them, and the potential user of the system cannot disclose what should be translated. We propose a simple and practical encryption-based method addressing this barrier.
In this paper, we present a simple and effective method to address the issue of how to generate diversified translation systems from a single Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) engine for system combination. Our method is based on the framework of boosting. First, a sequence of weak translation systems is generated from a baseline system in an iterative manner.