Xem 1-20 trên 215 kết quả Translation approach
  • Chapter 2 Approaches to language testing Language tests are chronologically classified according to four main approaches: (1) the essay translation approach; (2) the structuralist approach; (3) the integrative approach; and (4) the communicative

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  • Lecture Chapter 2: Approaches to language testing presented Language tests are chronologically classified according to four main approaches: (1) the essay translation approach; (2) the structuralist approach; (3) the integrative approach; and (4) the communicative.

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  • In this paper we present an ambiguity preserving translation approach which transfers ambiguous LFG f-structure representations. It is based on packed f-structure representations which are the result of potentially ambiguous utterances. If the ambiguities between source and target language can be preserved, no unpacking during transfer is necessary and the generator may produce utterances which maximally cover the underlying ambiguities.

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  • Tree-to-string translation is syntax-aware and efficient but sensitive to parsing errors. Forestto-string translation approaches mitigate the risk of propagating parser errors into translation errors by considering a forest of alternative trees, as generated by a source language parser. We propose an alternative approach to generating forests that is based on combining sub-trees within the first best parse through binarization.

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  • Hindi-Punjabi being closely related language pair (Goyal V. and Lehal G.S., 2008) , Hybrid Machine Translation approach has been used for developing Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System. Non-availability of lexical resources, spelling variations in the source language text, source text ambiguous words, named entity recognition and collocations are the major challenges faced while developing this syetm. The key activities involved during translation process are preprocessing, translation engine and post processing. ...

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  • Current statistical speech translation approaches predominantly rely on just text transcripts and do not adequately utilize the rich contextual information such as conveyed through prosody and discourse function. In this paper, we explore the role of context characterized through dialog acts (DAs) in statistical translation. We demonstrate the integration of the dialog acts in a phrase-based statistical translation framework, employing 3 limited domain parallel corpora (Farsi-English, Japanese-English and Chinese-English).

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  • For example, the company name create multilingual translation lexicons with “Sony” is transliterated into “新力” (xinli) in Tairegional variations. We propose a transitive wan and “索尼” (suoni) in mainland China. Such translation approach to determine translation terms, in today’s increasingly internationalized variations across languages that have insuffiworld, are appearing more and more often.

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  • Language tests are chronologically classified according to four main approaches: the essay translation approach, the structuralist approach, the integrative approach, the communicative approach.

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  • The BTL aims to stimulate research and training in translation and interpreting studies. The Library provides a forum for a variety of approaches (which may sometimes be conflicting) in a socio-cultural, historical, theoretical, applied and pedagogical context. The Library includes scholarly works, reference books, postgraduate text books and readers in the English language. EST Subseries The European Society for Translation Studies (EST) Subseries is a publication channel within the Library to optimize EST’s function as a forum for the translation and interpreting research community.

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  • This thesis has been done in an effort to investigate how euphemism is translated from English into Vietnamese in translated works as well as to find out what are the main approaches taken by translators in translating euphemism from English into Vietnamese. A collection of samples taken from literary works written in English and their Vietnamese versions have been analyzed to explore ways in which euphemisms are transferred. Besides, quantitative analyses have also been carried out to show distribution of ways of translating, on the basis of which to identify preferences....

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  • The umbrella term Social Sciences and Humanities refers to a plurality of fields outside the Natural or Physical Sciences. Disciplines as different as anthropology, archeology, architecture, art, cultural studies, economics, education, geography and environmental studies, history, law, languages and linguistics, political science, philosophy, psychology, sociology or translation studies, all share the concern for human relations and socio-cultural practices.

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  • This book is a compilation of chapters written by experts in their field on various modalities and dimensions of holistic health care and aging. We envision the book to be a compendium of reliable and authoritative information on complementary and alternative therapies that health professionals may use as they seek to improve the health and quality of life of those in their care.

    pdf344p cronus75 18-01-2013 21 4   Download

  • Most statistical machine translation systems rely on composed rules (rules that can be formed out of smaller rules in the grammar). Though this practice improves translation by weakening independence assumptions in the translation model, it nevertheless results in huge, redundant grammars, making both training and decoding inefficient. Here, we take the opposite approach, where we only use minimal rules (those that cannot be formed out of other rules), and instead rely on a rule Markov model of the derivation history to capture dependencies between minimal rules. ...

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  • Cross-lingual tasks are especially difficult due to the compounding effect of errors in language processing and errors in machine translation (MT). In this paper, we present an error analysis of a new cross-lingual task: the 5W task, a sentence-level understanding task which seeks to return the English 5W's (Who, What, When, Where and Why) corresponding to a Chinese sentence. We analyze systems that we developed, identifying specific problems in language processing and MT that cause errors.

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  • We present a set of algorithms that enable us to translate natural language sentences by exploiting both a translation memory and a statistical-based translation model. Our results show that an automatically derived translation memory can be used within a statistical framework to often find translations of higher probability than those found using solely a statistical model.

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  • This paper categorically rejects the possibility of considering a wordto-word conversion as a translation. A true translation is unattainable, even by the human agent, let alone by mechanical means. However, a crude practical translation is probably achievable. The present paper deals with a scheme for the syntactic integration of Russian sentences.

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  • While it is generally accepted that many translation phenomena are correlated with linguistic structures, employing linguistic syntax for translation has proven a highly non-trivial task. The key assumption behind many approaches is that translation is guided by the source and/or target language parse, employing rules extracted from the parse tree or performing tree transformations. These approaches enforce strict constraints and might overlook important translation phenomena that cross linguistic constituents. ...

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  • We present a first known result of high precision rare word bilingual extraction from comparable corpora, using aligned comparable documents and supervised classification. We incorporate two features, a context-vector similarity and a co-occurrence model between words in aligned documents in a machine learning approach. We test our hypothesis on different pairs of languages and corpora.

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  • This paper revisits the pivot language approach for machine translation. First, we investigate three different methods for pivot translation. Then we employ a hybrid method combining RBMT and SMT systems to fill up the data gap for pivot translation, where the sourcepivot and pivot-target corpora are independent. Experimental results on spoken language translation show that this hybrid method significantly improves the translation quality, which outperforms the method using a source-target corpus of the same size. ...

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  • This paper addresses the task of handling unknown terms in SMT. We propose using source-language monolingual models and resources to paraphrase the source text prior to translation. We further present a conceptual extension to prior work by allowing translations of entailed texts rather than paraphrases only. A method for performing this process efficiently is presented and applied to some 2500 sentences with unknown terms. Our experiments show that the proposed approach substantially increases the number of properly translated texts. ...

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