Today’s control system designers face an ever-increasing “need for speed” and accuracy in their system measurements and computations. New design approaches using microcontrollers and DSP are emerging, and designers must understand these new approaches, the tools available, and how best to apply them.
This practical text covers the latest techniques in microcontroller-based control system design, making use of the popular MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments.
• Analog voice data must be translated into a series of binary digits before they can be transmitted in
digital transmission system. One means of doing this is called pulse amplitude modulation (PAM).
• The process of converting analog signal to digital is also known as A_to_D conversion or A/D
conversion. The circuit does the conversion known as A/D converter.
In analog modulation (continuous wave modulation), some parameter of a sinusoidal carrier wave is
varied continuously in accordance with the message signal.
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.Power Transmission and Distribution
Anthony J. Pansini, E.E., P.E.
THE FAIRMONT PRESS, INC.
.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Pansini, Anthony J. Power transmission and distribution/Anthony J. Pansini.--2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN: 0-88173-503-5 (print) — 0-88173-504-3 (electronic) 1. Electric power transmission. 2. Electric power distribution. I. Title. TK3001.P29 2005 621.319--dc22 2004056439
Power transmission and distribution, second edition/Anthony J.
Communication systems consist of an input device, transmitter, transmission medium,
receiver and output device, as shown in Fig. 1.1. The input device may be a computer,
sensor or oscillator, depending on the application of the system, while the output device
could be a speaker or computer. Irrespective of whether a data communications or
telecommunications system is used, these elements are necessary.
In almost all areas of daily life the demands on the communications infrastructure
increased dramatically. With regard to the volume of data that has to be transmitted,
no matter whether we are dealing with public or private networks, industrial
fields or automobiles, needs will continue to rise. Consequently, the demands
on the bandwidth of communications systems will continue to increase since more
and more video data streams with high picture quality (IP TV), in addition to telephone
and data circuits, will be transmitted.
Today’s transmission methods and equipment are robust and reliable and feature integrated network
monitoring, troubleshooting, maintenance, and provisioning systems. However, public carriers and
most major private networks have historically engineered their network’s physical plant to include
access points at which they can gain quick and organized “hard-contact” access to any particular
Typically, these access points were comprised of analog jackfields with “line-drop-monitor” access
Most antenna engineers are likely to believe that antennas are one technology that is more or less impervious to the rapidly advancing semiconductor industry. However, as demonstrated in this lecture, there is a way to incorporate active components into an antenna and transform it into a new kind of radiating structure that can take advantage of the latest advances in analog circuit design
Long distance transmission is typically done over a network of switched nodes
Nodes not concerned with content of data
End devices are stations
Computer, terminal, phone, etc.
A collection of nodes and connections is a communications network
Data routed by being switched from node to node
Telephone networks use circuit switching. The telephone network had its beginnings in the late 1800s. The entire network, which is referred to as the plain old telephone system (POTS), was originally an analog system using analog signals to transmit voice.
Synchronous systems negotiate the connection at the data-link level before communication begins Basic synchronous systems will begins. synchronize two clocks before transmission.
Asynchronous systems do not send separate information to indicate the encoding or clocking information. The receiver must decide the clocking of the signal on it's own. This means that the receiver must decide where to look in the signal stream to find ones and zeroes.
SPICE (Simulation Program for Integrated Circuits
Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator that is
used to verify circuit designs and to predict the circuit behavior.
• PSpice is a PC version of SPICE and HSpice is a version that
runs on workstations and larger computers.
• PSpice has analog and digital libraries of standard
components (such as NAND, NOR, flip-flops, and other
digital gates, op amps, etc) which makes it a useful tool for
a wide range of analog and digital applications....
This book is intended to bridge the gap between formal engineering texts and more
popularly accessible descriptions of electric power technology. I discovered this
gap as a graduate student struggling to understand power systems—especially transmission
and distribution systems—which had always fascinated me but which now
invited serious study in the context of research on implementing solar energy.
Although I had studied physics as an undergraduate, I found the subject of power
systems difficult and intimidating....
I enjoyed reading this book for a number of reasons. One reason is that it addresses
high-speed analog design in the context of microwave issues. This is an advanced
level book, which should follow courses in basic circuits and transmission lines.
Most analog integrated circuit designers in the past worked on applications at a
low enough frequency that microwave issues did not arise. As a consequence, they
were adept at lumped parameter circuits and often not comfortable with circuits
where waves travel in space.
The passive components used in electronic circuits all make use of one or more of the
three fundamental phenomena of resistance, capacitance and inductance. Some components
depend for their operation on the interaction between one of these electrical properties
and a mechanical property, e.g. crystals used as frequency standards, piezo-electric
sounders, etc. The following sections look at components particularly in the light of
their suitability for use at RFs, and at how they can be inter-connected for various
The completion of his further studies in management in 2002 allowed him
to assist in the establishment and development of new consulting company
called nGT-wise, which is focused on the next generation technologies in the
domain of IT and telecommunication. Miroslaw holds there the position of a
Vice President, and manages the domain of datacom and transmission technologies.
The dramatic reduction in transmission loss of optical fibers coupled with very important
developments in the area of light sources and detectors have resulted in phenomenal
growth of the fiber optic industry during the last 35 years or so. Indeed,
the birth of optical fiber communication systems coincided with the fabrication of
low-loss optical fibers and the operation of room-temperature semiconductor lasers
in 1970. Since then, scientific and technological growth in this field has been phenomenal.
Electromagnetism is fundamental to the whole of electrical and electronic engineering. It provides
the basis for understanding the uses of electricity and for the design of the whole spectrum of devices
from the largest turbo-alternators to the smallest microcircuits. This subject is a vital part of the
education of electronic engineers. Without it they are limited to understanding electronic circuits in
terms of the idealizations of circuit theory.