Transmission investments

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  • We wrote the first edition of this textbook more than ten years ago. The intervening years have been a period of rapid and profound change in the investments industry. This is due in part to an abundance of newly designed securities, in part to the creation of new trading strategies that would have been impossible without concurrent advances in computer technology, and in part to rapid advances in the theory of investments that have come out of the academic community.

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  • The inclusion of Business Angels in the range of ‘informal’ (as opposed to ‘institutional’) investors provides us an indication that there are potential difficulties in measuring the size of the Business Angel community. Mason and Harrison identify two main problems, identification and definition. Regarding the former, in his seminal work on Business Angels, William Wetzel (1983) notes that the total population of Business Angels is unknown and probably unknowable on account of their invisibility, desire for anonymity, and the undocumented nature of their investing.

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  • This study, given its Bayesian approach, is related to the recent article by Baks, Metrick, and Wachter (2001), who estimate funds' alphas using informative prior beliefs about alpha. They investigate the degree to which informative priors can preclude an investor from infer- ring that at least one actively managed fund has a positive alpha. This inference relates to an investment problem of a mutual fund investor who can also earn the hypothetical costless returns on the benchmark indexes.

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  • This demand feature bridges the gap between borrowers and lenders. It allows governments to issue the long-term bonds they prefer, while making that debt eligible for purchase by money funds that must invest in short-term securities. Sound like the SIVs we discussed earlier? VRDNs are like SIVs in many respects, but with some key differences. First, there is generally less concern about the credit quality of the bonds in a VRDN than the securities held in a SIV—governments are usually pretty good payers.

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  • There are purported to be over 10,000 mutual funds available to the public for purchase. There are also many hundreds of sponsors, each with a stable of these funds. Each of a sponsor's funds pursues a different investment strategy. At any point in time, and over varying periods of time, merely by the laws of random chance, it is inevitable that some funds will have delivered higher returns than others. Those funds which have delivered the highest returns are given the greatest visibility by the many mutual fund rating services; and they are also the specific...

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  • This paper discusses the effects of bank competition on bank loan and deposit rate levels as well as on their responses to changes in market rates and, hence, on the monetary policy transmission mechanism. Given the prominent role of the banking sector in the euro area’s financial system, it is of significant importance for the ECB to monitor the degree of competitive behaviour in the euro area banking market. A more competitive banking market is expected to drive down bank loan rates, adding to the welfare of households and enterprises.

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  • iversification.Many investors in the stock market also hold bond funds to help smooth out the inevitable fluctuations in the value of their overall investment portfolios. Although bond funds can fluctuate in value just as stock funds do, bond funds do not always move in the same direction or to the same degree as stock funds.

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  • As a starting point, we look at publications from investment banks and at the development of interest rate swap spreads around key fiscal policy events. The euro interest rate swap spread seems to be a good indicator of the relative risk of private versus government long-term bonds versus the private inter-bank market. The main result of our review of investment bank newsletters and notes is that market participants closely observe and contribute to the debate on the SGP and its implementation.

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  • In preparation to this new scenario, many hardware and software companies are investing to create new platforms able to attract customers on the clouds. Cloud platforms provide services to create applications in competition or in alternative to on-premises platforms, the traditional platforms based on an operating system as a foundation, on a group of infrastructure services and on a set of packaged and cus- tom applications.

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  • Over the past 25 years, Ethernet standards have evolved from 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps to Gigabit and now 10 Gigabit. The rapid growth of Internet use and bandwidth-intensive applications combined with routine transmission of large files is driving the need for 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) in many network backbone and data center connections. Implementation is happening all around us. Sales of 10GbE switch ports are increasing dramatically, and will continue to grow over the next decade.

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  • Stochastic Optimization Algorithms have become essential tools in solving a wide range of difficult and critical optimization problems. Such methods are able to find the optimum solution of a problem with uncertain elements or to algorithmically incorporate uncertainty to solve a deterministic problem. They even succeed in “fighting uncertainty with uncertainty”. This book discusses theoretical aspects of many such algorithms and covers their application in various scientific fields

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  • the prevalence of HiV/aiDS among pregnant women is 0.9% (i.e. low for the region). Whilst 57% and 71% of women and men respectively have ever heard about aiDS, knowledge of prevention of transmission through the use of condoms was very low. there are currently no national guidelines for Prevention of Mother to child transmission (PMtct) or Highly active antiretroviral therapy (Haart). coverage for PMtct is accordingly very low: only 11 pregnant women living with HiV received PMtct services in 2007, an estimated coverage of 1% (11/940 women).

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  • We appreciate that many investors will be willing to bet on the long-run excess performance of value tilt strategies, through either the RAFI or through a combination of ETF’s. But we have presented longer-term evidence that should caution investors from dramatically shifting the indexed core holdings of their portfolios away from capitalization weighting. As historical data clearly show, the dissected value and growth components of the market have for decades had a tug-of-war of outperforming each other.

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  • In Financial Economics, many researchers have studied option prices, because these derivatives contain unique information that is not available from the prices of other financial instruments. A call option gives the buyer the right to purchase in the future a certain asset at a price fixed today. The value of such an option is determined by the distance between the current stock price and the exercise price. When market participants price option contracts in the course of trading, they use forecasts of the probability of different asset prices for the period until the derivative expires.

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  • Given the nature of such strategic decisions, the question of what is the relevant time frame over which economic value is created or destroyed becomes salient. A short-term focus on creating value exclusively for shareholders may result in the loss of value over the longer term through a failure to make the necessary investments in process and product quality and safety. Such a short-term approach to decision-making often implies both an inter-temporal loss of profit and a negative externality being imposed on stakeholders. That is, managers take decisions that increase...

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  • Lagerhaltung dient im Allgemeinen der Anpassung von Angebots- und Nachfrageprozessen, die nicht zusammen passen. So beschreibt es Paul Zipkin in seinem Buch Foundations of Inventory Management [94] sehr treffend. Ziel ist es also die Produktions- oder Beschaffungsabläufe mit den Nachfrageprozessen zu verheiraten, ohne dass es zu Problemen in den Kundenbeziehungen kommt, weil nachgefragte Teile nicht geliefert werden können. Lager dienen als Puffer, der in Zeiten geringer Nachfrage die Überproduktion aufnimmt und in Zeiten besonders starker Nachfrage die Unterproduktion ausgleicht.

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  • There is an urgent need to improve the health of women and children, particularly in areas of Africa, where Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 are most lagging. This requires strong community engagement and formal investments in national health systems, especially for those least likely to be reached through current national health strategies, such as those in rural communities. Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been internationally recognized for their notable success in reducing morbidity and averting mortality in mothers, newborns and children.

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  • 2008 market on a par with 2007 due to little volume growth and slightly lower raw material prices, but 23.6% fall in 2009 due to lower raw material prices and lower volumes.LV Energy –Rated below 1kV Power Cable –Rated 1kV and Above Telecom -External copper telecom cable Data –All types of cable for data transmission Winding Wire –All enamelled wire and covered conductors Fibre Optic –All fibre optic cables

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  • During the last decades, the usage of telecommunications systems has increased rapidly. Because of a permanent necessity for new telecommunications services and additional transmission capacities, there is also a need for the development of new telecommunications networks and transmission technologies. From the economic point of view, telecommunications promise big revenues, motivating large investments in this area.

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  • Mobile Satellite Communication∗ In principle communications satellites provide the same connectivity as terrestrial (wireless and wireline) networks. The advantages of satellites, such as fast wide-area coverage, flexible transmission parameters and cost independence due to distance, are compared with the disadvantages, such as restricted channel capacity because of the frequencies available, orbital positions, need for line-of-sight connectivity and high initial investment besides relatively long signal propagation times.

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