In contemporary debates about democratic governance, the concept of
accountability is hard to avoid. At least from a European perspective, recent
innovations in political and administrative decision-making have multiplied
opportunities for citizens to hold to account those who exercise governmental
authority. Or so we are told. Whether busy modernizing constitutional
structures or realigning public services along market-led lines, our political
representatives have proclaimed a new era of open and responsive government.
The search for resources including minerals, petroleum, and foodstuffs.
The US agribusiness giant United Fruit Company: controlled 90 per cent of US banana imports by 1899.
Royal Dutch/Shell accounted for 20 per cent of Russia's total oil production.
In Japan: Mitsui and Mitsubishi – “financial clique”
MalcolmShaw’s engaging and authoritative International Law has become
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While transnational loan schemes can help migrant families
purchase homes or start businesses in their countries of origin, there are
a number of challenges that must be addressed. For example, MFIC found
that the 50-50 percent risk-sharing arrangement between MFIC and MFIs
was difficult to implement. It also found that if a client were to default on
his/her loan, MFIC could take no legal action in the United States. Different
institutions underwriting the policy also produced varying assessments
on the level of credit risk of loan clients.
Special category deposit accounts, diaspora bonds, the securitization
of future remittances, and transnational loans are among the financial
instruments whose potential have yet to be fully exploited. Multilateral
institutions as well as public and private institutions can help developing
countries improve their banking sector and raise credit ratings. One of the
fundamental challenges for many countries that lack foreign investment
is the perception of economic, political, or social risk among the diaspora
and general investors.