Transnational accountability

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  • In contemporary debates about democratic governance, the concept of accountability is hard to avoid. At least from a European perspective, recent innovations in political and administrative decision-making have multiplied opportunities for citizens to hold to account those who exercise governmental authority. Or so we are told. Whether busy modernizing constitutional structures or realigning public services along market-led lines, our political representatives have proclaimed a new era of open and responsive government.

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  • The search for resources including minerals, petroleum, and foodstuffs. For example: The US agribusiness giant United Fruit Company: controlled 90 per cent of US banana imports by 1899. Royal Dutch/Shell accounted for 20 per cent of Russia's total oil production. In Japan: Mitsui and Mitsubishi – “financial clique”

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  • MalcolmShaw’s engaging and authoritative International Law has become the definitive textbook for instructors and students alike, in this increas- ingly popular field of academic study. The hallmark writing style provides a stimulating account, motivating students to explore the subject more fully, while maintaining detail and academic rigour. The analysis inte- grated in the textbook challenges students to develop critical thinking skills. The sixth edition is comprehensively updated throughout and is carefully constructed to reflect current teaching trends and course cov- erage.

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  • While transnational loan schemes can help migrant families purchase homes or start businesses in their countries of origin, there are a number of challenges that must be addressed. For example, MFIC found that the 50-50 percent risk-sharing arrangement between MFIC and MFIs was difficult to implement. It also found that if a client were to default on his/her loan, MFIC could take no legal action in the United States. Different institutions underwriting the policy also produced varying assessments on the level of credit risk of loan clients.

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  • Special category deposit accounts, diaspora bonds, the securitization of future remittances, and transnational loans are among the financial instruments whose potential have yet to be fully exploited. Multilateral institutions as well as public and private institutions can help developing countries improve their banking sector and raise credit ratings. One of the fundamental challenges for many countries that lack foreign investment is the perception of economic, political, or social risk among the diaspora and general investors.

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