The search for resources including minerals, petroleum, and foodstuffs.
The US agribusiness giant United Fruit Company: controlled 90 per cent of US banana imports by 1899.
Royal Dutch/Shell accounted for 20 per cent of Russia's total oil production.
In Japan: Mitsui and Mitsubishi – “financial clique”
MalcolmShaw’s engaging and authoritative International Law has become
the deﬁnitive textbook for instructors and students alike, in this increas-
ingly popular ﬁeld of academic study. The hallmark writing style provides
a stimulating account, motivating students to explore the subject more
fully, while maintaining detail and academic rigour. The analysis inte-
grated in the textbook challenges students to develop critical thinking
skills. The sixth edition is comprehensively updated throughout and is
carefully constructed to reﬂect current teaching trends and course cov-
The resulting product profited from further input from Mark
Stern and Susan Seifert, Joan Shigekawa of the Rockefeller
Foundation, and TRF staff, Patricia Smith, Margaret Berger
Bradley, Ira Goldstein, Julia Serbulov and Alissa Weiss. A special
thank you as well to David Bradley for his collaborative editorial
contribution. Arts practitioners, developers and policy analysts
who participated in a one-day convening in June 2007 also
contributed greatly to our understanding of these issues.
The collaboration also resulted in five briefs.
Principle of comparative advantage: “Two countries can both gain from trade if, in the absence of trade, they have different relative costs for producing the same goods” ( David Ricardo)
Transnational corporation: “corporations which operate in more than one country or nation at a time and have become some of the most powerful economic and political entities in the world today.”
In a broad sense, land grabbing is not a new phenomenon.
It has been a recurrent pattern in human history. Neverthe-
less, over the last few years, a new type of land grabbing has
arisen, and these shifts in land acquisition trends have caught
the attention of the international community. One of the re-
cent changes is that not only agribusiness in its narrow sense
(producing sector) has an increased interest in land, but also
transnational corporations upstream and downstream the value
In many developing countries, international migration has emerged as a significant phenomenon.
Within the context of globalization, people have become more mobile, and transient, both physically and
technologically. The flows of international tourists around the world have increased to the order of
millions. People working for transnational corporations have moved into different regions of the world
where companies are expanding or i ntensifying their activities.
The compensation or return theoretically due to or actually gained by a country’s citizens when a
country’s resources such as oil or forests are exploited for export has always depended on
complex social institutions, property rights and power relations. In an era of increasing trade,
investment and financial liberalisation, the relationship between the exploitation of resources and
the accrual of benefits to poor citizens is even more difficult.
Gender is well recognised as a critical consideration for HIV/AIDS organisations. Since the 1990s, HIV/AIDS policy-makers, donors, non-governmental organisations and transnational corporations have adopted gender mainstreaming as the process for integrating gender into development programmes and institutions. There is an increasing body of literature on the successes and challenges of practicing gender
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Identify the management goal and organizational structure of the Multinational Corporation (MNC), describe the key theories that justify international business, explain the common methods used to conduct international business, provide a model for valuing the MNC.
Microfinance International Corporation (MFIC). Since 2006
MFIC, a US-based financial services corporation, has partnered with
microfinance lenders and remittance transaction operators in El Salvador,
Guatemala, and the Plurinational State of Bolivia to provide transnational
mortgage loans to immigrants in the United States and Spain. MFIC links
remittances to housing microfinance. Partnering with two microfinance
institutions (MFIs) — Apoyo Integral de S.V. and Sociedad Cooperativa de
Ahorro y Crédito (AMC) — MFIC launched a pilot program in El Salvador
in September 2006.
Chapter 8 - International strategy. The learning objectives for this chapter include: Explain traditional and emerging motives for firms to pursue international diversification; explore the four factors that lead to a basis for international business-level strategies; define the three international corporate-level strategies: multidomestic, global, and transnational;...