The number of applications for RFID systems has increased each year and various
research directions have been developed to improve the performance of these systems.
Therefore IN-TECH publisher has decided to continue the series of books dedicated to the
latest results of research in the RFID field and launch a new book, entitled “Radio Frequency
Identification Fundamentals and Applications, Design Methods and Solutions”, which
could support the further development of RFID.
This report presents the results of a theoretical analysis of a frequency-hopping, multiple-frequency-shift-keyed, spread-spectrum communication system using a nonprocessing communication satellite transponder. A large number of users are assumed to be hopping pseudo-randomly about the transponder passband in time synchronization and approximate frequency synchronization. The users are assumed to ......
Differentiation Features of RFID Systems
Fundamental Differentiation Features
RFID systems exist in countless variants, produced by an almost equally high number of manufacturers. If we are to maintain an overview of RFID systems we must seek out features that can be used to differentiate one RFID system from another (Figure 2.1). RFID systems operate according to one of two basic procedures: full duplex (FDX)/ half duplex (HDX) systems, and sequential systems (SEQ). In full and half duplex systems the transponder’s response is broadcast when the reader’s RF ﬁeld is switched on....
Fundamental Operating Principles
This chapter describes the basic interaction between transponder and reader, in particular the power supply to the transponder and the data transfer between transponder and reader (Figure 3.1). For a more in-depth description of the physical interactions and mathematical models relating to inductive coupling or backscatter systems please refer to Chapter 4.
Coding and Modulation
The block diagram in Figure 6.1 describes a digital communication system. Similarly, data transfer between reader and transponder in an RFID system requires three main functional blocks. From the reader to the transponder — the direction of data transfer — these are: signal coding (signal processing) and the modulator (carrier circuit) in the reader (transmitter), the transmission medium (channel ), and the demodulator (carrier circuit) and signal decoding (signal processing) in the transponder (receiver)....
The Architecture of Electronic Data Carriers
Before we describe the functionality of the data carriers used in RFID systems we must ﬁrst differentiate between two fundamental operating principles: there are electronic data carriers based upon integrated circuits (microchips) and data carriers that exploit physical effects for data storage. Both 1-bit transponders and surface wave components belong to the latter category.
Since its establishment in 1959, the International Maritime Organization and its Member Governments, in close
co-operation with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and with other international organizations,
notably the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) and the International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat), and with the COSPAS–SARSAT partners,
have striven to improve maritime distress and safety radiocommunications.
The personal digital assistant is the main control unit of the robot, communicating
with the craft’s body via a beam of infrared light and to
other machines on the wireless network. The PDA itself becomes a data
transponder. It (the PDA) is insulated and protected from the robotic
interface. It is said to be optically isolated, communicating on ripples
of light. Because of this design, no connectors are required and the software
provided will work with any Windows or PalmOS driven handheld