When small, independent providers want to
negotiate with multiple health plans, large
insurers exert enormous pressure to stop them.
The statewide trade group for doctors in New
York sued UnitedHealth Group Inc., the nation’s
second-largest health insurer by enrollment, for
allegedly using illegal coercion in just such a
scheme to limit competition.26
In a separate matter UnitedHealth agreed to pay
$400 million to settle multiple suits alleging
price fixing and other anti-competitive
Air travel is continuing to experience the fastest growth among all modes of transport. Increasing total
fuel consumption and the potential impacts of aircraft engine emissions on the global atmosphere have
motivated the industry, scientific community, and international governments to seek various emissions
reduction options. Despite the efforts to understand and mitigate the impacts of aviation emissions, it still
remains uncertain whether proposed emissions reduction options are technologically and financially
Much of this debate reflects differences in analysis scope (Litman 2009b). Highway
expansion advocates tend to focus on traffic congestion reduction objectives and ignore
the negative effects of induced vehicle travel and sprawl.
Advocates of investments in
alternative modes tend to consider a wider range of impacts and objectives, including
traffic congestion reduction, parking cost savings, consumer cost savings, accident
reductions, improved mobility for non-drivers, energy conservation, pollution reductions,
and public fitness and health.