The increasing possibility of using many forms of bodily material to benefit others in medical
treatment and research has brought about a constant pressure within the UK to meet demand.
There is a continual need to recruit new blood donors in order to maintain an adequate supply
of blood; three people die every day while waiting for an organ transplant; many fertility clinics
are not able to meet requests for treatment involving donor eggs or sperm; and research
organisations cite difficulties in accessing bodily material as a key factor limiting research
The marketing mix concept is one of the core concepts of
marketing theory. However, in recent years, the popular
version of this concept McCarthy’s (1964) 4Ps (product,
price, promotion and place) has increasingly come under
attack with the result that different marketing mixes
have been put forward for different marketing contexts.
While numerous modifications to the 4Ps framework
have been proposed (see for example Kotler, 1986;
Mindak and Fine, 1981; Nickels and Jolson, 1976;
Waterschoot and Bulte. 1992) the most concerted
criticism has come from the services marketing area.
Special emphasis in this conversation will be placed on the role international mechanisms can play as relevant drivers of
behaviour change, notably those focusing on relevant sectors and able to produce information that is responsive to the
needs of national stakeholders to promote gender equality. Speakers will show how evidence on gender equality can be
used to hold actors to account at the international level and what challenges remain.
As crop prices increase, the value of the crops being insured increases,
which results in higher crop insurance premiums and premium subsidies.
For example, the prices of major crops were substantially higher in 2011
than in 2006, and premium subsidies in 2011 (about $7.4 billion) were
substantially higher than in 2006 (about $2.7 billion). USDA forecasts that
the prices of major crops—corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat—will
continue to be substantially higher than 2006 prices through 2016.
Administrative expense subsidies also increased because of higher crop
Ooplasmic transfer involves egg retrieval from the woman undergoing IVF and another woman
donating ooplasm (the cytoplasm of an egg cell: the material outside the nucleus). The egg is
then fertilized with sperm and implanted into the woman intending to become pregnant. The
resulting child has DNA from both women because of the mitochondrial DNA present in the
ooplasm of the donor, as well as DNA from the sperm provider (partner or donor), and therefore
has three genetic parents. It had been used for women whose infertility seemed to stem from the
ooplasm in their eggs.
Traditionally, the woman displayed has
functioned on two levels: as erotic object for the characters within the screen story,
and as erotic object for the spectator within the auditorium, with a shifting tension
between the looks on either side of the screen. For instance, the device of the show-
girl allows the two looks to be unified technically without any apparent break in the
diegesis. A woman performs within the narrative, the gaze of the spectator and that
of the male characters in the film are neatly combined without breaking narrative
Computational and methodological concerns in the GAM implementation for time series anal-
yses of pollution and health delayed the review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard
(NAAQS) for PM, as the time series ¯ndings were a critical component of the evidence. The EPA
deemed it necessary to re-evaluate all of the time series analyses that used GAM and were key in
the regulatory process. EPA o±cials identi¯ed nearly 40 published original articles and requested
that the investigators reanalyze their data using alternative methods to GAM.
This article criticizes the predominant use of fear appeals in social
marketing. Laboratory studies, which have been the basis for most of
the research on fear appeals and which generally suggest that high
fear works, have limitations that include forced exposure, short-term
measurement, and an overdependence on student samples. Although,
unfortunately, field research evaluations of fear appeals are few, they
usually reveal that fear has both weaker effects and unintended deleterious
effects in real-world social marketing campaigns.
You may decide you want your walk to finish in the same place as the start. If so, you will need to think
about how to separate the starters from the finishers – either by using a different part of the park for
example, or by being sure that no one will finish the course before the last person sets off.
You need to set up a well-defined finish line to give walkers that moment of knowing that they’ve
completed the distance. As well as the all-important finish line the finish site should ideally offer toilets
and refreshments and...
Although some older companies, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, played central
parts in the emerging IT industries, no one imagines that these industries could have
taken off as profusely as they did just from the existing corporate base. The ongoing
series of new growth companies provided the highly adaptive economic infrastructure
The question we now face is how to re-kindle economic expansion and job creation.
With the rise of China, India, and other countries, innovation is becoming more
globalized than ever.
Total outstanding adjustable-rate subprime mortgages
are less than USD 1 trillion. Moreover, those mortgages
originated during 2006 and early 2007 represent
only a fraction of that total. Thus, even if subprime
delinquency rates keep climbing to unprecedented
levels, it seems likely that total losses will be roughly
in a range of USD 100-200 billion. Although this is a
lot of money, it pales next to the USD 58 trillion of net
worth of US households or the USD 16 trillion market
capitalization of the US equity market.
In 2010 a national body was established to meet the future challenges of providing a health
workforce that responds to the needs of the Australian community. Health Workforce Australia
(HWA) will develop policy and deliver programs across four main areas—workforce planning,
policy, and research; clinical education; innovation and reform of the health workforce; and the
recruitment and retention of international health professionals. HWA has commenced work to
develop a national training plan (NTP) for a number of health professionals, including nurses and
A comprehensive search of the scientific literature for this report is complete through September 1991.
In addition, pertinent studies published through July 1992 have been included in the analysis in response to
recommendations made by reviewers.
Due to both resource and time constraints, the scope of this report has been limited to an analysis of
respiratory effects, primarily lung cancer in nonsmoking adults and noncancer respiratory illnesses in children,
with emphasis on the epidemiologic data.
A pregnant woman is considered to always have a “full stomach” due to delayed gastric emptying and incompetent lower esophageal sphincter. Thus, pregnant women are at increased risk for aspiration (13;14). Therefore, prophylactic measures to prevent aspiration should be used, particularly during the third trimester. A woman with multiple gestation is at increased risk for aspiration in the mid-second trimester because of the large uterus. Maintaining a semi-seated position and avoiding excessive sedation are required to prevent aspiration.
Clearly and elegantly presented, Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering provides a coherent treatment of mathematical methods, bringing advanced mathematical tools to a multidisciplinary audience. The growing interest in interdisciplinary studies has brought scientists from many disciplines such as physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, economics, and finance together, which has increased the demand for courses in upper-level mathematical techniques.
The generation of wastes as a result of human activities has been continuously speeding up since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, both optimized waste water treatment technologies and modern tools to assess the effects of pollution sources are necessary to prevent the contamination of aquatic ecosystems The book offers an interdisciplinary collection of topics concerning waste water treatment technologies, water quality monitoring and evaluation of waste water impact on natural environments.
Young doctors are the future of our Society. Therefore,
I am hoping to see a global network created for young
gynecologists who are interested in gynecologic cancer. If
young doctors from various countries start to communicate
effectively and share information with each other, we
can both improve and standardize cancer treatment and
contribute to the well-being of women worldwide. Education
for young doctors is very important because they are still
pure and have a sensitivity to share experiences of all kinds.
Knowledge of the Earth’s structure and dynamics calls for a multi-disciplinary study that
makes use of the most advanced methods of Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics
and Information Technology, in the framework, or in close collaboration with, the
different branches of Earth Sciences such as Geology, Geophysics and Geodesy.
The initial reason for writing Complementary and Alternative Medicine: An Evidence-
Based Approach was the need to examine research evidence and claims purported by
advocates, clinicians, and researchers of complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM) regarding its effectiveness. Both of us had previous experience with certain of
these therapies since we had worked with American Indians who used alternative spiritual-
indigenous medical approaches to health-related problems. Joseph Jacobs, a
Mohawk, grew up using many of these healing practices.
Trends in needing help with such activities as housework or shopping may be
due to changes in the physical abilities of the older population, but they may also be
related to the availability of help in the house, either familial or paid, the availability
of appliances, and the accessibility of transportation (1, 12). However, causes of
trends in IADL functioning have not been apportioned to reasons residing in the
person and reasons outside the person.
The trends in what is termed ADL disability have not been nearly as consistent
as those in IADL disability (31).