While most consumers still base their travel decisions largely on price, value for money,
service and availability, more and more people are taking environmental factors into
The railway community is therefore working hard to provide customers with comprehensive
information on climate change, air pollution and the ‘external costs’ of transport.
New internet-based tools, such as EcoPassenger and EcoTransIT (see Figure 6), are
making a range of data available to customers.
Company culture underpins a person’s acceptability and shared values. Such values have
an impact on the work of Human Resource managers involved in the recruitment, selection, and
especially the retention of staff. There is a link too to allocating training opportunities to those in
favour within an organisation. A key concern must surely be retention of valued staff.
Thus an ‘aesthetic’ employee is perceived, perhaps through behaviour, as talented, valued
and beautiful, though probably not in a physical sense.
For most of the 1800s, hospitals had been a place where the chronically ill and indigent received charitable care
because they had no family capable of shouldering the burden. Those who could afford it received care at home. But
as the importance of asepsis began to be appreciated, surgical and acute care patients were more likely to be treated
in hospitals designed to facilitate antiseptic conditions. Hospitals began charging for the use of their facilities.
During the transition, medical bills began absorbing significant amounts of family income. Hospital costs rose
A popular approach to measuring the interest-rate risk exposure of a bank is to
run regressions of the bank’s stock return on a risk factor, such as an interest rate.
The regression coeﬃcient on the interest rate — often referred to as the interest-rate
beta, is a measure of the bank’s average exposure to interest rate changes over the
sample period considered (Flannery and James 1984a). Interest rate betas do not tell
us where the bank’s exposure comes from, that is, what positions generate it.
The area of work that is, perhaps, most readily associated with work in the
realm beyond the rationality and control is research on emotions. A num-
ber of broad domains of scholarship can be seen as working to describe
the emotions or feelings experienced in learning situations. Research on
the brain, spurred by advancements in imaging technology, offers tanta-
lizing glimpses into the relationship between emotions, cognition, and
Another general domain in the study of emotions focuses on students’
feelings about themselves or their performance.
Cement manufacturing is an energy-intensive process due to the high temperatures required in the
kilns for clinkerization. The use of alternative fuels to replace conventional fuels, in particular
coal, is a widespread practice and can contribute to improving the global warming impact and
total environmental footprint of the cement industry.
Mental Health All three countries have identified depression as a serious mental health
problem among youth. They have all reported concerns about eating disorders. While the three
countries have different measures of mental health and illness, all three recognize that better data
and measures are needed to address this issue.
Cancer For all three countries, cancer is the second leading cause of death for children age 5
to 14. Children in Mexico are more likely to die from leukemia (and other types of cancer) than
are children in Canada and the United States.
Search strategies were developed with PubMed using Medical Subject Heading [MeSH]
and title abstract [tiab] terms to identify relevant exposures (organic vs. conventional
production methods) and outcomes (composition of nutrient and other substances). The
exposure terms searched (including all MeSH, headings, subheadings and tiab terms)
were “organic”, “health food”, “conventional” combined with “food”, “agricultural crop”,
However, DNS blocking may be of more-limited value in the longer term. The implementation of DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC), a technology used to authenticate and verify domain name queries to reduce incidences of fraud online (through malicious sites), is likely to be incompatible with DNS blocking. DNS-blocking could still be used to block sites identified as infringing copyright even after DNSSEC has been rolled out.
Based on the discussion of contracting's implications for earnings calculation, we model operating cash flows and the formal accounting process by which forecasted future operating cash flows are incorporated in earnings. The modeling enables us to generate specific integrated predictions for: i) the relative abilities of earnings and operating cash flows to predict future operating cash flows; and ii) firms' time series properties of operating cash flows, accruals and earnings. We also predict cross-sectional variation in the relative forecast-abilities and correlations.
Syngenta Seeds’ Gary Wietgrefe points out several of the impediments to
widespread adoption of HTF corn (Ed Zdrojewski in BioFuels Journal,
2003b). To begin with, starch and ethanol yield vary by geographic region
and from year to year, making an optimizing hybrid choice difficult.
Further, choosing a hybrid that maximizes ethanol qualities may mean a
tradeoff with yield and other potentially valuable qualities, such as protein
content and even test weight (because of moisture). Testing equipment pres-
ents its own challenges.
Our goal is to provide privacy and integrity to the data, to authenticate the sender, to prevent replay attacks and
to prevent trafﬁc analysis; consequently, the entire communication is encrypted (with one exception which will be
explained). All communications consist of a preamble, header and payload. The format of all communications
(sensor nodes and the base station) consist of a preamble, header and payload. The preamble is empty if the
communication originates from the base station and is directed to a sensor, otherwise it contains the address of the
A key observation of the paper is that neither the branch nor the subsidiary structure is
obviously preferable in all cases from the financial stability perspective. The key to
ensuring financial stability lies instead in the design of effective mechanisms to oversee and
resolve cross-border banking groups. These include effective home/host supervision and
information-sharing arrangements and satisfactory cross-border resolution regimes and burden-
The difference in these answers arises from the way each source defines “small business,” which
data (and associated methodology) are used, and the time period analyzed (Okolie, 2004). The
Office of Advocacy uses the generally accepted small business definition of a firm with fewer than
500 employees. However, Advocacy has provided partial funding for SUSB to create subset firm
sizes allowing users to examine other categories of small businesses and understand the nuances of
different firm size classes. ...
Seventh, the idea of slicing a view with movements into small
dissections, each of a fraction of a second, combined with the idea that
when this would be shown the audience would see the movement
because of the persistence of vision, was important to cinema. The notion
of the persistence of vision is old, and was used in several of the visual
gadgets of the 19th
century, such as the Thaumatrope and the projection
of a cartoon. The idea to dissect a view, however, was newer, and started
with the photographs of Marey to capture the movement of...
Soil reactivity with chemical oxidants is also important when considering the
costs of the use of chemical oxidation. Excessive loss of a chemical oxidant that is
reacting with organics in soil, instead of reacting with the contaminants, may
preclude the use of the technology as an economically viable approach to site
remediation. Different chemical oxidation technologies are most appropriate for
particular hydrogeologic conditions. For example, Fenton’s Reagant may not be
ideal for groundwater with high concentrations of carbonate.
In a book titled Photosynthesis it is easy to forget that light is not simply the energy driving
plant metabolism. Light also is the central environmental factor that affects plant size, shape
and development. In fact, light activation of photomorphogenic signaling pathways sets the
stage for photosynthesis and ensures the maintenance of the apparatus. The effects of
specific wavebands of light exert their influence on plant biology from the molecular level
all the way up to the higher morphological level, and even contribute to the canopy form as
The final risk-sharing component of the SRA is the “net book quota share,” defined as the
proportion of a company’s overall gain or loss over its entire “book of business” that is ceded to
the government after all other reinsurance provisions in the SRA have been applied. Under the
SRA, companies must cede a 6.5% share of their cumulative underwriting gains/losses to the
government. During years in which there are underwriting gains, 1.5% of this share is distributed
back to companies that sell and service policyholders in 17 underserved states.
At the same time that the UN was debating cloning,
UNESCO was developing a Universal Declaration on
Bioethics that attempts to outline some practical
expressions of a principle of social responsibility.
I went on to argue that this long-standing sociological view of what really
happens in organizations has important commonalities with recent economic models by
the likes of Bengt Holmstrom, David Kreps, Paul Milgrom, John Roberts, and Jean
Tirole. For example, I described how one page from Crozier’s (1964) case study
anticipated key elements of Milgrom and Roberts’s (1988) model of how the prospect of
influence activities shapes second-best organizational design.