Trophic interactions

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  • Challenges to sustaining the productivity of oceanic and coastal fisheries have become more critical and complex as these fisheries reach the upper limits to ocean harvests. In addition, it is now clear that we are managing interactive and dynamic food webs rather than sets of independent single-species populations.

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  • Drawing on the collective expertise of world authorities, Ecological Basis of Agroforestry employs extensive use of tables and figures to demonstrate how ecologically sustainable agroecosystems can meet the challenges of enhancing crop productivity, soil fertility, and environmental sustainability. Divided into four sections, this comprehensive volume begins with a study of tree-crop interaction in tropical and temperate climates.

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  • The late Neogene (the period between − 14 and − 2.4 Ma) is one of the most interesting phases in understand the present conWguration of terrestrial ecosystems. It was during this time that the change took place from the middle Miocene dominant subtropical forests that stretched across southern Europe and western Asia to a more open but still wooded biotope that now prevails in warm–temperate areas. This change in vegetation, which strongly aVected the composition of mammalian faunas, seems to be linked to the rapid spread of grasses around 8–10 Ma ago....

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  • 27 Effects of Contaminants on Trophic Structure and Food Webs The empirical patterns are widespread and abundantly documented, but instead of an agreed explanation there is only a list of possibilities to be explored. (May 1981) There has been little synthesis of the relative roles of different ecological forces in determining population change and community structure. Rather, there is a collection of idiosyncratic systems, with their associated protagonists, in which opposing views on the importance of particular factors are debated. (Hunter and Price 1992) 27.

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  • Aquatic scientists have always been intrigued with concepts of scale. This interest perhaps stems from the nature of ßuid dynamics in oceans and lakes — energy cascades from spatial scales of kilometers down to viscous scales at centimeters or less. Turbulent processes affect not only an organism’s perception of, and response to, the physical environment, but also the interaction between species, both within and across trophic levels.

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  • CHAPTER TWELVE Ecology and Evolution of Cambrian Reefs The history of reef building through the Cambrian records the replacement of predominantly microbial communities by those in which sessile animals participated in construction, so heralding a new reef ecosystem with elaborate trophic webs, complex organism interactions

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  • Chapter 20 Food Webs In the previous chapter we began to consider how population interactions can shape communities. Our focus was on interactions between species occupying the same trophic level or between members of adjacent trophic levels.

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  • This book began its evolution in 1999 when the British Antarctic Survey, where I worked at the time, began a new research programme on the management of marine ecosystems. This programme concentrated upon the krill-based ecosystem at SouthGeorgia which has been the subject of almost continuous study since the Discovery Expeditions in the 1920s. Latterly, international efforts to understand the dynamics of this ecosystem and the wider Southern Ocean have been coordinated by the Commission for the Conservation of AntarcticMarine Living Resources (CCAMLR)....

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  • As shown later, much of the resultant risk to human populations and the ecosystems upon which they depend comes from the pro- jected extremely rapid rate of change in climatic conditions. Indeed, the prospect of such change has stimulated a great deal of new scientific research over the past decade, much of which is elucidating the complex ecological disturbances that can impact on human well-being and health—as in the following example.

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