Tropical medicine

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  • Tropical medicine research holds a special place as an important activity that as a consequence of multiple factors, such as globalization and migration has extended and reaffirms its importance not only in tropical developing countries but also in nonendemic areas in the developed world. The update on different aspects related to the practice of tropical medicine and their multiple components needs to be frequently visited. Three of the most important infectious terminal diseases in the world that belong or significantly affect tropical areas are AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

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  • copy and build upon published chapters even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications. Notice Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher.

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  • Sam is a lecturer in academic and medical English al Souch wark College, where he organises IELTS courses for overseas doctors and other health personnel, and courses in medical English, including preparation for the source componet to the PLAB. He is also the creator and organizer of the Nuffteld Self-access Language Project for Overseas Doctors and is a free-lance consultant in medical English, specialising in tropical medicine.

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  • Căn bản thống kê y học Betty Kirwood (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) . Trong cuộc sống thường nhật, có nhiều người biết tạo cho mình thói quen có lợi cho sức khỏe, nhưng cũng có không ít người tạo cho mình thói quen có hại cho sức khỏe.

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  • Natural products are a constant source of potentially active compounds for the treatment of various disorders. The Middle East and tropical regions are believed to have the richest supplies of natural products in the world. Plant derived secondary metabolites have been used by humans to treat acute infections, health disorders and chronic illness for tens of thousands of years. Only during the last 100 years have natural products been largely replaced by synthetic drugs.

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  • Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued expansion and diversification becoming one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Many new destinations have emerged alongside the traditional ones of Europe and North America. In the next years an increase of travelling is expected, and the number of related infections will also be higher ( Rickettsioses are an important chapter in the field of travel medicine.

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  • Fever Fever in a traveler who has returned from a malarious area should be considered a medical emergency because death from P. falciparum malaria can follow an illness of only several days' duration. Although "fever from the tropics" does not always have a tropical cause, malaria should be the first diagnosis considered. The risk of P. falciparum malaria is highest among travelers returning from Africa or Oceania and among those who become symptomatic within the first 2 months after return.

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  • Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect millions of people in (sub)tropical areas around the world. Glycoconjugates of schistosomes play a critical role in the interaction of the different developmental stages of the parasite with the host. In particular, glycosylated components of the eggs produced by the adult worm pairs living in the bloodstream are strongly immunogenic.

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  • Hormonal Evaluation Androgens are secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands in response to their respective tropic hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The principal circulating steroids involved in the etiology of hirsutism are testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form (DHEAS). The ovaries and adrenal glands normally contribute about equally to testosterone production.

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  • Epidemiology G6PD deficiency is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical parts of the world (Africa, Southern Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Oceania) (Fig. 101-5) and wherever people from those areas have migrated; a conservative estimate is that at least 400 million people have a G6PD-deficiency gene. In several of these areas, the frequency of a G6PD-deficiency gene may be as high as 20% or more.

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  • Retrovirology Research BioMed Central Open Access HIV-1 TAR miRNA protects against apoptosis by altering cellular gene expression Zachary Klase1, Rafael Winograd1, Jeremiah Davis1, Lawrence Carpio1, Richard Hildreth1, Mohammad Heydarian2, Sidney Fu2, Timothy McCaffrey2, Eti Meiri3, Mila Ayash-Rashkovsky3, Shlomit Gilad3, Zwi Bentwich3 and Fatah Kashanchi*1 Address: 1The Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine program, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia 20037, USA, 2The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology...

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  • .Hospitals in a changing Europe .European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series Series Editors Josep Figueras is Head of the Secretariat and Research Director of the European Observatory on Health Care Systems and Head of the European Centre for Health Policy, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Martin McKee is Research Director of the European Observatory on Health Care Systems and Professor of European Public Health at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine as well as a co-director of the School’s European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition.

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  • One ot the most representative (sub)tropical soil microbe,Chro-mobacterium violaceum, produces many important substances and has great potential for biotechnology and medicine. On the other hand, it can also act as an opportunistic human pathogen. The bacterium produces the lectin CV-IIL, that can help the adhesion bacterium to saccharide moieties at host cells¢ surface.

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  • Delia-Marina Alexe MD PhD is a graduate of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” in Bucharest, Romania. She trained in trauma and cancer epidemiology at the University of Athens Medical School, Greece. She joined the Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK, in 2006. Her research interests include cancer aetiology and trends; the role of adipose tissue hormones and growth factors in cancer risk; and early life environment and cancer risk....

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  • Environmental stress deleteriously affects every aspect of an ectotherm’s biological function. Frequent exposure of terrestrial insects to temperature variation has thus led to the evolution of protective biochemical and phy-siological mechanisms. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the positive impact of fluctuating thermal regimes (FTRs) on the fitness and survival of cold-exposed insects have not been studied.

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  • The NS2B–NS3 protease complex is essential for the replication of dengue virus, which is the etiologic agent of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, dis-eases that are a burden for the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The active form of the NS3 protease linked to the 40 residues of the NS2B cofactor shows highly flexible and disordered region(s)...

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  • Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distri-buted over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and⁄or prolonged envi-ronmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host.

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  • CCR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds several natural chemokines but it is alsoa coreceptor for the entryof M tropic strains of HIV-1 into cells. Levels of CCR5 on the cell surface are important for the rate ofHIV-1 infectionand are determined by a number of factors including the rates of CCR5 internalization and recycling. Here we investigated the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the control of ligand-induced internalization and recycling of CCR5.

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  • In most tropical countries, there are local duck breeds that have been selected to suit local conditions. They may not perform as well as improved breeds, but they do have the ability to survive and produce well under local extensive and semi-intensive systems. Setioko (1997) described three Indonesian ducks: Tegal, Alabio and Bali. Improved genotypes have been introduced and have either been crossed with local ducks or remained reasonably pure. There was some concern about the ability of the improved genotypes to survive under traditional farming systems.

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  • Tropical Sprue Nearly all patients with acute and subacute tropical sprue show malabsorption of cobalamin; this may persist as the principal abnormality in the chronic form of the disease, when the patient may present with megaloblastic anemia or neuropathy due to cobalamin deficiency. Absorption of cobalamin usually improves after antibiotic therapy and, in the early stages, folic acid therapy. Fish Tapeworm Infestation The fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum) lives in the small intestine of humans and accumulates cobalamin from food, rendering this unavailable for absorption.

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