This report, one of a series of adoption case studies coordinated by the Impacts Assessment and Evaluation Group (IAEG) of
the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), examines the adoption by Ghanaian maize farmers
of improved production technologies developed through the Ghana Grains Development Project (GGDP).
By estimating the default jump risk premium, this paper essentially tests the assumptions
underlying the conditional diversification hypothesis of JLY (2001). These authors prove that,
if default jumps are conditionally independent across firms and if the economy contains an
infinite number of bonds, default jump risk cannot be priced. Intuitively, in this case the default
jump risk can be fully diversified. Our results indicate that default jumps are not conditionally
independent across firms and/or that not enough corporate bonds are traded to fully diversify
default jump risk.
It has been suggested that executives seek higher salaries in
comparison to other executives, as a means of recognizing com-
parative ability or performance. Th at is, high salary is a means of
recognizing the status of the executive amongst their executive
peers. In this case new provisions for the reporting of executive
salaries as a means of restraining them would be self defeating.
Th e information about salaries of executive peers would • serve
to motivate executives to seek parity with any more highly paid
Between January 2006 and February 2008, AMS Compliance provided its results from five investigations of certified organic operations to NOP. Although they recommended that NOP officials take enforcement actions against these operations, we found that NOP did not respond to these in a timely or effective manner. In addition, in those cases where enforcement actions were issued, NOP did not monitor the organic operations to ensure compliance with those actions.
A number of positive factors underpin this forecast. Investment is forecast to
provide the largest proportionate increase in the components of demand. In
2006, investment growth of 4 per cent is expected, substantially higher than the
2.1 per cent figure for 2005. Much of the improvement can be traced to
Germany where business sentiment appears to be strong, thereby prompting
an expectation of increased investment. The strong investment performance is
expected to persist into 2007 with a growth rate of 3.5 per cent forecast.
Association studies from north India probing
multiple loci across the spectrum of candidate cytokine
genes are scanty. The present study, therefore, was aimed
to bring in focus certain unexplored polymorphisms
in the context of tuberculosis susceptibility in north
Indian population. The role and importance of genetic
background in tuberculosis has now become univocal
with ethnicity playing a crucial role. Probing new loci
relating to tuberculosis susceptibility could suggest
novel approach in pharmacogenomics and therapy
to combat this pathogen.
The second edition of this practical, authoritative reference book
provides a rational basis for the diagnosis and management of
tuberculosis. Written by a number of experts in the field, it remains
faithful to Kurt Toman’s original question-and-answer format, with
subject matter grouped under the three headings Case detection,
Treatment, and Monitoring.
It is a testament to the enduring nature of the first edition that so much
material has been retained unchanged.
For example, it has been shown that depressed patients are three times more
likely not to comply with medical regimens than non-depressed patients;
there is also evidence that depression predicts the incidence of heart disease.
In the case of infectious diseases, non-adherence can lead to drug resistance,
and this has profound public health implications concerning resistant infec-
Illness-associated depression impairs quality of life and several aspects of the
functioning of patients with chronic diseases; moreover, it results in higher
health care utilization and costs.
Sputum examination was carried out at the 2nd, 4th and 6th month as required by RNTCP. All HIV seropositive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were treated with Category 1 regimen, while HIV seronegative patients were treated with either Category 1 or Category III regimens as per RNTCP guidelines. During the period of anti-TB treatment, if the subject failed to turn up for treatment, suitable action was taken as described in the RNTCP to ensure regularity in anti-TB treatment. At the time of the initiation of the study, free antiretroviral therapy was not yet available in India.
Tuberculosis (TB) is prevalent in India and
continues to be a leading cause of death1. Its control
programmes can achieve a high level of treatment
success2 and are associated with a decline in reported
disease burden3. This is possible only if there is an
effective TB control programme like the Directly
Observed Treatment - Short Course (DOTS) aimed
for higher cure and case detection. When the
programme is successful, more cases will be
detected and treated successfully. This will result in
cutting the transmission in the community.
To a number of people who influenced my life and prepared me for the
job of creating this book:
First, my mother, who not only taught me to read, but allowed me
to experience the enjoyment of reading. She opened up for me the vast
knowledge available in libraries.
Dr. Wade Moorehouse, retired Professor of Accounting and former
Chairman of the Department of Business and Economics at California
State University, Hayward, who many years ago, when I was an undergraduate
student in his accounting course, stimulated my excitement
about the accounting function.
Some twenty five countries have experimented with environmental accounting over the
past twenty years. A few European countries have established physical accounting
systems which are routinely compiled and applied to economic and environmental
policy-making. Many other countries have undertaken more limited or one-time
experiments and case studies with monetary environmental accounts, focused on issues
such as forestry, soil erosion, and minerals depletion. A few examples suggest the
richness of their experience.
The lead agency must also coordinate with other agencies and review security plans for infrastructure and
utilities that could threaten event security (local water supply, water treatment facilities, electricity supply,
communications grid, sewer system, computer systems, etc.). At some special events, manhole covers have
been welded shut near the event venues. Often, newspaper dispensers and public trash cans are removed
before an event (they can be hiding places for bombs and can be used as missiles to harm law enforcement
or destroy property). When such measures...
Stability Bonds would promote efficiency in the euro-area sovereign bond market and in
the broader euro-area financial system. Stability Bond issuance would offer the possibility
of a large and highly liquid market, with a single benchmark yield in contrast to the current
situation of many country-specific benchmarks. The liquidity and high credit quality of the
Stability Bond market would deliver low benchmark yields, reflecting correspondingly low
credit risk and liquidity premiums (see Box 1).
Four years after the launch of the euro in January 1999 and while the
European Central Bank (ECB) plans a review about its monetary policy
strategy, it seems interesting to study the link between monetary policy, the
long-term perception of ináation and long-term interest rates. In the European
case, it is possible to use the German term structure as a benchmark.
This reluctance on the part of mainstream lenders creates an opportunity for microfinance but also
underlines the paramount importance of credit risk management in an industry that, in Western
Europe at least, continues to be driven by socially motivated investors and entities supporting
microfinance as part of their social responsibility initiatives. This realisation has a significant
impact on the pricing of financing instruments to such types of entities and has arguably served to
undermine the development of viable microfinance models in terms of self-sustainability.
Leadership is required from City staf and elected oicials, from
organizations operating in diverse sectors across the city, and from
Vancouver residents—many of whom have already contributed to the
development of this plan. he City will need to lead the way in its own
operations as well, demonstrating what a Greenest City looks like in
City-run buildings, facilities, and operations. Leadership from other
levels of government and other public sector agencies will also be
critical to our success.
A plan like this is only useful when it is acted upon.
Thanks to their traditional decentralised organisation and large distribution network, savings
banks have built strong local roots and gained extensive experience in developing relation-
ships with major stakeholders in the local communities. Thus, they are deeply involved in the
life of the area where they operate and have a thorough understanding of the socio-eco-
nomic challenges and environment. They actively contribute to local and regional economic
and social development, including in the most remote areas and underserved communities.
Savings banks in Spain have a long tradition of providing social credits to under-served
financially excluded communities. Caja de Granada in particular chairs the International
Association of Social Pledging Credit Establishments1 and like Caixa Galicia and Caixa
Catalunya, grants micro-credits through their foundations, mainly in the regions where they
operate. Caja Granada recently organized a symposium with all its microcredit holders to