Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Sustainable scaling up of good quality health worker education for tuberculosis control in Indonesia: a case study
In 1976, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) published brief guidelines for the investigation, diagnostic evaluation, and
medical treatment of TB contacts. Although investigation of contacts and treatment of infected contacts is an important component
of the U.S. strategy for TB elimination, second in priority to treatment of persons with TB disease, national guidelines have
not been updated since 1976.
This manual describes policies, protocols and recommendations for the prevention, treatment and control
of tuberculosis from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH). It
was written primarily for the medical providers of the New York City Bureau of Tuberculosis Control
(BTBC) as a reference guide on tuberculosis diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Originally published
in 1993, with subsequent editions in 1997 and 1999, the 4th edition of the manual has been updated to
reflect changes in national recommendations and BTBC protocols.
Damage to buildings is a dominant component of
flood-related costs, at least in Bangkok and Manila.
In these cities, over 70 percent of flood-related costs
in all scenarios are a result of damages to buildings.
Cities are, almost by definition, built-up areas full
of concrete structures, so it is not surprising that
the main impact of floods is on these structures
and the assets they carry. In HCMC, 61 percent of
urban land use and 67 percent of industrial land
use are expected to be flooded in 2050 in an extreme
event if the proposed flood control measures are
The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is
complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative
pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy
Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results.
The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm
used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis.
The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be made by the detection of acid fast bacilli by direct microscopy, using carbol fuchsin stain and/or fluorochrome stain. Microscopy is a rapid method but lacks sufficient sensitivity and does not distinguish between different species of mycobacteria. The sensitivity of microscopy is often not more than 25-40% as compared to culture, but under ideal conditions, it is possible to achieve a rate of 60-70%.
Initially, the internet was an open medium with certain characteristics that made it hard to
control. According to Western journalists and politicians, the efforts of the Chinese
government to control the internet are doomed to fail. This study attempts to counter this view
and discusses to what degree the Chinese government can control the internet in China and,
more than that, to what degree the internet can be used as a means for control.
Methodologically, the four modalities of control (the law, architecture, social norms and the
market), set forth by Lessig will be used.
In the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in India, the target of 85 per cent cure rate has been attained. A recent report indicates a success rate of 87 per cent in 200915. This, however, is a mean of results achieved throughout the country with a HIV prevalence of 0.29 per cent16. The distribution of HIV infection is uneven and there are six States which have HIV prevalence over 1 per cent. In such areas, the prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients may be high, which could in turn affect the efficacy of the RNTCP regimen.
In the TB...
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Aren’t premiums in the employer
insurance market going to go up?
Historically, premiums have gone up rapidly.
The Affordable Care Act helps change that by
working to control costs. Starting September 1,
2011, in every State and for the first time ever,
insurance companies are required to publicly
justify their actions if they want to raise rates by
10 percent or more. Health policy experts and
economists who have looked at the health care
law have said that it pursues the full range of tools
to reduce health care costs. And a family of four
would save as much as...
This prospective observational study was undertaken at the Chest Clinic in Talera Hospital located in the Pimpri Chinchwad area of Pune. This clinic serves as the District TB Centre (DTC) for the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) area under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme of India. The DTC at Talera Hospital has a good record of implementation of the RNTCP and is located in an area with a high prevalence of HIV infection.
People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected
reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to
determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone.
Methods: An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison
inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study.
Monitoring the outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for
unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program.
This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in
the Tigray region of Ethiopia.
Methods: Medical records of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients registered from September 2009
to June 2011 in 15 districts of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, were reviewed.
The HIV epidemic has led to large increases in the frequency of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis, which has
poor treatment outcomes and excessive early mortality compared with smear-positive disease. We used a combination
of systematic review, document analysis, and global expert opinion to review the extent of this problem.
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a
milder form of disease in terms of infectivity as
compared to pulmonary TB (PTB). Whereas sputum
can be easily obtained for the detection of disease in
lungs, diagnosis of EPTB is often difficult requiring
invasive and expensive serological/radiological
investigations. A category-wise drug treatment is
similar for the two forms of disease1. However, an
assessment of end point of cure is a problem with
An infectious case of pulmonary tuberculosis
is diagnosed by demonstrating tubercle bacilli in
sputum. The laboratory methods available for this
purpose are sputum microscopy, isolation of
tubercle bacilli in culture followed by
identification of the bacilli and animal
pathogenicity tests. Evidence based on all the
three methods establishes bacteriological
diagnosis beyond any doubt, but even
economically advanced countries may not
consider such an elaborate procedure essential for
The general approach to treatment is summarized in Figure 1.
Because of the relatively high proportion of adult patients with
tuberculosis caused by organisms that are resistant to isoniazid,
four drugs are necessary in the initial phase for the
6-month regimen to be maximally effective. Thus, in most
circumstances, the treatment regimen for all adults with previously
untreated tuberculosis should consist of a 2-month
initial phase of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide
(PZA), and ethambutol (EMB) (Table 2, Regimens
The overall goals for treatment of tuberculosis are 1) to cure
the individual patient, and 2) to minimize the transmission of
Mycobacterium tuberculosis to other persons. Thus, successful
treatment of tuberculosis has benefits both for the individual
patient and the community in which the patient resides. For
this reason the prescribing physician, be he/she in the public
or private sector, is carrying out a public health function with
responsibility not only for prescribing an appropriate regimen
but also for successful completion of therapy.