a-enolase (ENOA) is a metabolic enzyme involved in the synthesis of pyru-vate. It also acts as a plasminogen receptor and thus mediates activation of
plasmin and extracellular matrix degradation. In tumor cells, EMOAis
upregulated and supports anaerobic proliferation (Warburg effect), it is
expressed at the cell surface, where it promotes cancer invasion
(BQ) Part 2 book "Molecular diagnostics for dermatology" presents the following contents: Tumors of the soft tissue - using molecular tools to aid in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors and the management of the sarcoma patient; emerging molecular applications and summary; infectious disease testing; other hereditary dermatologic disease,...
(BQ) Part 2 book "Clinical chemistry - Quality in laboratory diagnosis" presents the following contents: Endocrine/tumor markers/special chemistry; laboratory information systems/informatics, laboratory safety, outreach testing.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Pathology of the maxillofacial bones - A guide to diagnosis" presentation of content: Non-neoplastic diseases, cysts, epithelial odontogenic tumors, odontogenic tumors mesenchymal, odontogenic tumors - mixed epithelial and mesenchymal, odontogenic tumors - malignant.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Pathology of the maxillofacial bones - A guide to diagnosis" presentation of content: Fibro-Osseous lesions, giant cell lesions, bone tumors, other lesions involving the maxillofacial skeleton, diseases of the temporomandibular joint.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Practical differential diagnosis in surgical neuropathology" presentation of content: Meningioma, meningeal sarcoma, hemangioblastoma, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors, pineal region tumors, pituitary gland lesions, pituitary gland lesions, pituitary gland lesions,...
The practicing radiologist is continually challenged to update his/her competencies so
as to deliver state-of-the-art radiological care. Nowhere is this truer than in the rapidly
evolving world of magnetic resonance imaging, where innovations in both technology
and diagnostic pharmaceuticals have dramatically altered the landscape of practice.
Clinical course of CLL is variable. Recently, progress has been made in the identification of
biological markers that could predict disease progression. Particularly, the expression of
unmutated Ig genes, some cytogenetic abnormalities like 17p and 11q deletions and the
expression of the zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) are associated to a poor prognosis.
Over the past 20 years, technological advances in molecular biology have
proven invaluable to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human cancer.
The application of molecular technology to the study of cancer has not only
led to advances in tumor diagnosis, but has also provided markers for the
assessment of prognosis and disease progression. The aim of Molecular Analysis
of Cancer is to provide a comprehensive collection of the most up-to-date
techniques for the detection of molecular changes in human cancer.
The prognosis for individuals with liver cancer is frequently poor. Cancers include those which have metastasized to the liver from elsewhere, reflecting advanced stage disease where cure is rarely possible. Similarly, primary liver cancer frequently complicates chronic liver disease, which further limits therapeutic options. Despite these dismal facts, there are signs that change is imminent. Not only have imaging modalities and surgical techniques improved, but preventive strategies and medical therapies show promise.
Such an integrative approach in basic and
clinical gastroenterology seems to be essential for the pathomechanism, proper
diagnosis and management of patients who suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The
potential reader will not only find in this book the recent advances in the physiology
and pathomechanism of GI tract disorders, but also the treatment options based on
pharmacological and surgical intervention and the recent advances in the biological
therapy with probiotics and prebiotics, which nowadays is a rapidly growing area of
Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death among women
in the United States. More than 180,000 new cases of invasive breast
cancer are diagnosed each year, and more than 40,000 women die of the
disease. Recent years, however, have seen improvements in survival
attributed to better treatment and earlier diagnosis. Research efforts have
been directed toward better treatment, preventive strategies, and early
This book presents the salient features of optic nerve disorders, encompassing
optic neuritis, papilledema, ischemic optic neuropathies, compressive
and infi ltrative optic neuropathies, traumatic optic neuropathies,
nutritional and toxic optic neuropathies, hereditary optic neuropathies,
and optic disc tumors. Chapters 1 to 9 outline key clinical aspects of each
of these disorders. Chapter 10 illustrates some newer applications of
optical coherence tomography (OCT) in monitoring optic nerve-related
processes causing retinal nerve fi ber layer loss and in ruling out retinal
This book deals with problems which are sufficiently important to become the subject of studies.
Cancer of the stomach remains one of the most pressing medical problems. Meanwhile,
scientific and practical interest in this problem has markedly diminished during recent years.
According to some experts, this can be explained first by the decreasing incidence of gastric
cancer. But this concerns only some developed countries, where effective measures are taken
for the prevention and early diagnosis of malignant tumors.
Great advances have been performed in the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of these
diseases but the search of specific protective or risk biomarkers is an unsolved field.
Since completion of the human genome project a rapid progress in genetics and
bioinformatics have enabled the development of multiple tools as well as a large public
databases, which include genetic and genomic data linked to clinical health data.
Admission to veterinary programmes around the globe is a highly competitive process, with
candidates typically required to attain top grades in science-based subjects to qualify for
entry. Owing to the large number of applicants to veterinary schools, interviews often form
part of the selection process. Although curricula will vary from provider to provider,
veterinary programmes are extremely intensive courses of study and typically include pre-
clinical, para-clinical and clinical components.
Some urinary tract disorders rarely cause symptoms until the problem is very advanced; these include kidney failure, tumors and stones that do not block urine flow, and some low-grade infections. Sometimes, symptoms occur but are very general and difficult for the doctor to connect to the kidney. For example, a general feeling of illness (malaise), loss of appetite, nausea, or generalized itching may be the only symptoms of chronic kidney failure. In older people, mental confusion may be the first recognized symptom of infection or kidney failure. ...
Although in many trials haloperidol has been used as
the standard comparator, the clinical trial evidence for haloperidol itself is much less
impressive than one might expect (Barry et al 2012). By their very nature systematic reviews
and RCTs provide only average indices of probable efficacy in groups of individuals recruited
to the study in question. Although many RCTs attempt to limit inclusion criteria to a single
category of diagnosis from DSM4 or ICD10, many studies include individuals with different
types of schizophrenic diagnosis such as schizoaffective disorder.
One unsolved issue concerns the role of the clonal B-cell receptor (BCR) in disease
progression. Despite the fact that low expression of the BCR correlates with reduced
induction of protein tyrosine kinase activity and defective intracellular calcium mobilization
and tyrosine phosphorylation  this receptor conserves the capacity of antigen
recognition and signaling, controlling thereby key behaviors of tumor cell, like proliferation
and cell survival. Individual patients have different responses to IgM ligation which are
related to VH gene status.
The tendinous chords, as functional extensions of the papillary muscles, perform the dual
function of maintaining valvular competence by preventing leaflet prolapse and
maintaining ventricular geometry by providing cross-ventricular support. The chords
originate from the apical portions of the papillary muscles or directly from the posterior
ventricular wall. They insert either into the free edge of the leaflets or on their ventricular
surface. Chords have been characterized a number of ways.