Tumor pathophysiology

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  • In addition, although more rare, some patients might not present until weeks, if not longer, after their infarction with symptoms that prompt the discovery of a chronic PI- VSD. Early PI-VSDs tend to be catastrophic and typically result in early death.

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  • There is a great difference between the superficial reading of a film and the proper interpretation of a clinical scintigraphic image by an imaging specialist. Fully utilizing the clinical image, the imaging specialist evaluates both the anatomical and the physiological structure of the human body. First the specialist must appreciate the patient’s clinical problem.Working from this clinical context, he then applies his understanding of the pathophysiological basis of disease and his knowledge of how such pathology may translate into various imaging patterns.

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  • Hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) is a serine protease initially identified as a potent activator of hepatocyte growth factor⁄scatter factor. Hepatocyte growth factor⁄scatter factor is known to be critically involved in tissue morphogenesis, regeneration, and tumor progression, via its recep-tor, MET. In vivo, HGFA also activates macrophage-stimulating protein, which has roles in macrophage recruitment and inflammatory processes, cellular survival and wound healing through its receptor, RON....

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  • Computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of cancer imaging outside of the central nervous system. Advances in multidetector CT (MDCT) technology have had a profound impact on its diagnostic capabilities. Such techniques as multiphase, single breath-hold imaging, CT angiography (CTA), volume rendering and virtual colonography owe their success to the development of multidetector arrays with continuously moving gantries.

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  • Human cystatin C (HCC) is a family 2 cystatin inhibitor of papain-like (C1) and legumain-related (C13) cysteine proteases. In pathophysiological processes, the nature of which is not understood, HCC is codeposited in the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer’s disease or Down’s syndrome.

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  • The most frequent chromosomal abnormality in CLL is deletion of 13q14, being monoallelic in 76% of cases, and biallelic in 24% [13, 14, 24]. This deletion, also detected in MBL [11] occurs at a much lower frequency in multiple myeloma, DLBCL, mature T-cell lymphomas, and in several solid tumors [25-29]. A minimal deleted region (MDR) has been defined in a large number of CLL cases with monoallelic 13q14 deletion. This region contains the long non-coding RNA deleted in leukemia (DLEU)-2, and the first exon of the DLEU1 gene [30, 31].

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  • Uterine myomas are the most common benign tumors in women, affecting 20%–50% of reproductive age population. Myomas cause significant morbidity and are the single most common indication for hysterectomy in the United States, representing a major personal and public health concern worldwide. Recent research on the cellular and molecular biology of myomas has enabled us to understand better the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this tumor, but more remains to be done.

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  • Department of Physiology, University of Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Biocenter, University of Basel, Switzerland; 3Xerion Pharmaceuticals, Martinsried, Germany; 4Department of Medicine, Section Pathophysiology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany; 5Department of Biochemistry, Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Germany Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) displays neurotrophic activities on motor neurons and neural cell populations both in vivo and in vitro. ...

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  • Protein misfolding is recognized as an important pathophysiological cause of protein deficiency in many genetic disorders. Inherited mutations can disrupt native protein folding, thereby producing proteins with misfolded conformations.

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  • Cancer may constitute the most extensively studied disease entity of our time. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the cellular and molecular pathology of malignant transformation is incomplete. In view of the diverse clinical presentations of various malignancies, doubts may be raised as to whether it is appropriate to refer to cancer as one group of disease states. The notion of malignant tumors as a pathologic and pathophysiologic class of conditions begs the question for defining criteria that characterize all malignant growths, regardless of their tissue of origin....

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  • Energy balance and pathophysiology of weight loss. Food intake may be influenced by a wide variety of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli as well as by genetic, psychological, and social factors. Absorption may be impaired because of pancreatic insufficiency, cholestasis, celiac sprue, intestinal tumors, radiation injury, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, or medication effect. These disease processes may be manifest as changes in stool frequency and consistency. Calories may also be lost due to vomiting or diarrhea, glucosuria in diabetes mellitus, or fistulous drainage.

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  • Postmucosal Lymphatic Obstruction The pathophysiology of this condition, which is due to the rare congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia or to acquired lymphatic obstruction secondary to trauma, tumor, or infection, leads to the unique constellation of fat malabsorption with enteric losses of protein (often causing edema) and lymphocytopenia. Carbohydrate and amino acid absorption are preserved. INFLAMMATORY CAUSES Inflammatory diarrheas are generally accompanied by pain, fever, bleeding, or other manifestations of inflammation.

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  • The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in physiological processes such as thrombolysis and ®brinolysis, as well as pathophysiological processes such as thrombosis, tumor invasion and metas-tasis. In addition to inhibiting serine proteases, mainly tissue-type (tPA) and urokinase-type (uPA) plasminogen activators, PAI-1 interacts with di€erent components of the extracellular matrix, i.e. ®brin, heparin (Hep) and vitronectin (Vn).

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