During my experience of research for the last 25 years, I have felt the need for a text book
written specifi cally for Design Engineers and Materials Scientists. Although there have
been a number of excellent books written on the subject, they are now either out of date or
fundamental in nature. There is a growing need to adopt advanced techniques / technologies
to meet the ever increasing demand for high effi ciency in existing engines and to develop
modern gas turbines for strategic and special applications....
Innovation in engineering often means the clever use of a new material - new to a
particular application, but not necessarily (although sometimes) new in the sense of
‘recently developed’. Plastic paper clips and ceramic turbine-blades both represent
attempts to do better with polymers and ceramics what had previously been done well
with metals. And engineering disasters are frequently caused by the misuse of
World energy demand is likely to increase over the next 20 years, and it is well
ascertained that fossil fuels will still be the dominant source for power generation all
over the world. In this scenario, gas turbine (GT) engines will still represent a key
technology, either in stand-alone applications or combined with other power
A wide range of issues related to analysis of gas turbines and their engineering applications are considered in the book. Analytical and experimental methods are employed to identify failures and quantify operating conditions and efficiency of gas turbines. Gas turbine engine defect diagnostic and condition monitoring systems, operating conditions of open gas turbines, reduction of jet mixing noise, recovery of exhaust heat from gas turbines, appropriate materials and coatings, ultra micro gas turbines and applications of gas turbines are discussed.
Wind power generation is considered as the most economic viable alternative within
the portfolio of renewable energy resources. Among their advantages are the large
number of potential sites for erection and the rapidly evolving technology with many
suppliers offering from the individual turbine set to even turnkey projects. The
disadvantages of wind energy include high capital costs and lack of controllability on
the discontinuous or intermittent resource.
Materials are evolving today faster than at any time in history. Industrial nations
regard the development of new and improved materials as an “underpinning technology”
– one which can stimulate innovation in all branches of engineering, making
possible new designs for structures, appliances, engines, electrical and electronic devices,
processing and energy conservation equipment, and much more.
The advent of novel materials for electronics, optoelectronics and nanoelectronics holds the
promise for new microelectronic device designs and applications across all fields of science
and technology. Furthermore, the increasing sophistication of fabrication processes and
techniques used in the semiconductor industry has resulted in the ability to produce circuits
of greater complexity at remarkably reduced costs, a trend which has been continuing over
the past half-century.
The term magnetic bearing refers to devices that provide stable suspension of a rotor. Because
of the contact-less motion of the rotor, magnetic bearings offer many advantages for various
applications. Commercial applications include compressors, centrifuges, high-speed turbines,
energy-storage flywheels, high-precision machine tools, etc.
Magnetic bearings are a typical mechatronic product. Thus, a great deal of knowledge is
necessary for its design, construction and operation.
The book describes the state of the art and latest advancements in technologies for various areas of aircraft systems. In particular it covers wide variety of topics in aircraft structures and advanced materials, control systems, electrical systems, inspection and maintenance, avionics and radar and some miscellaneous topics such as green aviation. The authors are leading experts in their fields. Both the researchers and the students should find the material useful in their work.
The confluence of market demand for greatly improved
compact power sources for portable electronics with the rapidly
expanding capability of micromachining technology has made
feasible the development of gas turbines in the millimeter-size
range. With airfoil spans measured in 100’s of microns rather
than meters, these “microengines” have about 1 millionth the
air flow of large gas turbines and thus should produce about 1
millionth the power, 10-100 W.
Humanity is facing several critical global challenges at the beginning of the 21st century.
One of which includes the quest for alternative energy resources that mitigate
the dependence on fossil fuels. Whereas fossil fuels are available in situ at all times,
the utilisation of renewal energies has to cope with large temporal fl uctuations ranging
from seconds to seasons.
During the last two decades, increase in electricity demand and environmental
concern resulted in fast growth of power production from renewable sources. Wind
power is one of the most efficient alternatives. Due to rapid development of wind
turbine technology and increasing size of wind farms, wind power plays a significant
part in the power production in some countries.
Another significant driver—in a world now more environmentall
conscious than ever—is a global thrust to develop projects whic
not only minimize GHG emissions but also help to displace GHG
emissions from other industrial sources. Thus, one of the more
significant advantages of gas-turbine and engine-based
cogeneration is the potential for significant GHG reductions.
Further, it is the monetization of GHG reductions and other poss
financial incentives that are helping to encourage and facilitate
development of cogeneration applications.
Laser velocimeter measurements of the flow field in the rotor row of a low-speed research turbine. 1Photograph courtesy of Dr. D. C. Wisler, Director, Aerodynamic Research Laboratory of GE Aircraft Engines.2
The complete material for Chapter 12 is contained in the E-book only.
In previous chapters we often used generic “black boxes” to represent fluid machines such as pumps or turbines. The purpose of this chapter is to understand from a fluid mechanics standpoint how these devices work.
In 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology
(OIT) established a group of seven industries designated as Industries of the
Future (IOF). These industries were selected for their high energy use and large
waste generation. The original IOF included the aluminum, chemicals, forest
products, glass, metalcasting, petroleum refining, and steel industries. Each industry
was asked to provide a future vision and a road map detailing the research
required to realize its vision.